Presentation on theme: "The Research problem Islamic University Nursing college"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Research problem Islamic University Nursing college
2 The Research problem Sources of research problems:- Experience Nursing literature.Theories: Through a process of deduction.Ideas from external sources.
3 Development and Refinement of Research problems. Researchers often begin with an interest in some broad topic area.Once a broad topic is identified, the researcher poses questions to transform the topic into more specific researchable problems.
4 Question stems such as, what causes…? What characteristics are associated with…?How effective is …? And what conditions prevail before…? Can lead the researcher to a study question.
5 Example:The general problem area is discrepancy in complaints from pts regarding pain medications administered by different nurses.The nurse might ask, what accounts for this discrepancy? Or, how could this situation be improved?
6 They may lead the nurse to other questions, such as, how do the two groups of nurses differ? Or what characteristics do the complaining pt share?At this point, the nurse may observe that the cultural background of the pts and nurses appears to be a relevant factor.This may direct you to a review of the literature for studies concerning ethnic subcultures and their effect on nursing interventions or it may provoke you to discuss the observations with peers.
7 The result of research efforts may be several researchable problems such as the following: Is there a relationship between the ethic background of nurses and the frequency with which they dispense pain medication?Is there a relationship between the ethnic background of pts and their complaints of having to wait for pain medication?
8 Does the number of pt complaints increase when the pts are of dissimilar ethnic backgrounds as opposed to when they are of the same ethnic background as the nurse?Do nurses’ dispensing behaviors change as a function of the similarity between their own ethnic background and that of the pts?
9 “ No two studies are ever identical so that every study has the potential of making some contribution to knowledge”.-We must narrowing the scope of the problem and sharpening and defining the concepts.Example:-
10 Formulation of a research problem: process Example:-Idea emergesFamily relationships change as elderly relatives frail and infirmBrainstormingDo relationships change positively or negatively?What factors contribute to the nature of the relationships in either a positive or negative direction?
11 Review of the literature The literature suggests that whether the relationship is positive or negative, stress is experienced by adult caregivers of the elderly.Although factors such as financial status, length of time in caregiver role, and cognitive status have been identified as stressors, none have been empirically tested.
12 Research problem is formulated Identify variablespotential variables:Amount of stress.Financial status.Cognitive status of elderly.Age of caregiver.Length of time in caregiver role.Caretaker health status.Amount and type of social supportPsychological distress.Research problem is formulatedWhat is the effect of perceived care- giver stress and social support on the psychological distress of family care- givers of the elderly?
13 Research problem consideration ‘‘or criteria for evaluating research problems”. Significance of the problem.Is the problem an important one? Are there practical applications?Does the possibility exist that patients, nurses, or the broader health care community will benefit by the knowledge produced?
14 Can the findings potentially help to improve nursing practice? Will the findings contribute to nursing theory?If the answer to all these questions is no, the worth of the research problem is probably low.
15 Feasibility of the study. Factors of feasibility:-TimeAvailability of subjectsCooperation of othersFacilities, equipment, cost, and other resourcesExperience of the researcherEthical considerations
16 3. ResearchabilityStatement of the research problemThe problem should includes the populationShould includes the variable ()and their possible interrelationships.The problem should be empirically testable.Always state a research problem in a complete and grammatically correct sentence.
17 Form of the statement.Declarative: The problem of this study is to determine the relationship between anxiety level of nursing students before a mid term examination and the numbers of hours they have studied for the examination. Interrogative : Example :Is there a relationship between the anxiety levels of baccalaureate nursing students before a midterm examination and the number of hours they have studied for the examination?
18 The interrogative form has the advantage of simplicity and directness. It invite an answer.Help to focus the researcher’s and the reader’s attention on the kings of data that would have to be collected to provide that answer- there fore, recommend the interrogative form for the statement of the problem.
19 The transition from the broad topic to the final statement usually requires many attempts, Examples of problem statement for nursing Research.
20 Formal problem statement General TopicIs early discharge for hemorrhoidectomy pts related to potop. Problems?Early dischargeIs there a relationship between bladder catheterization and urinary tract infection in pts?Bladder catheterizationIs there a relationship between the incidence of decubitus ulcers in comatose pts and frequency of turning?Decubitus ulcersAre month – to- month Bp variations predictive of cerebral vascular accidents in the elderly?Bp variationsDo hospitalized pts who have daily visitors express fewer somatic complaints than pts without daily visitors?Effects of visitorsAre nurses attitudes toward the mentally ill related to the nurses length of experience in working with them?Attitudes toward the mentally illDo children who are instructed about pain manifest better adjustment to hospitalization than those who are not?Children's hospital adjustment
21 Critiquing the research problem:- Guidelines of Critiquing problem statements.Does the research report clearly present the research problem, or does the problem have to be inferred?Was the problem statement introduced promptly? Was it placed in a logical and easy to find location?
22 Is the problem statement clearly and concisely articulated? Is the problem statement worded objectively?Has the researcher appropriately delimited the scope of the problem, or is the problem too big or complex for a singlc investigation?
23 Dose the problem statement clearly identify the research variables and the nature of the population being studied?Does the justifiable? Does it flow from prior scientific information or relevant theory?Does the problem have significance to the nursing profession, and does the researcher describe that significance?
24 Can the research problem be adequately addressed through the collection of empirical data, or is it more suitable to a debate?Did the researcher appear to give appropriate consideration to such practical issues as time, facilities, resources, and securing appropriate permissions?
25 Examples of problem statements: What are the influences, of age, coping behavior, and self-care on psychological, social, and physiological adaptation in preadolescents and adolescents with insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus?What role does spiritual health play in the coping responses of pts to devastating physical illness?
26 This study investigates the effect of relation on anxiety and dyspnea in pts with COPD. What is the optimum frequency of changing urinary drainage bags in pts with bladder dysfunction to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection?
27 Is there a relationship between the nurse’s attitude toward AIDS and the emotional status of the AIDS pt?Does the amount of touching nurses give to pts speed the pts, recovery?