Presentation on theme: "Research Methods in Nursing. Examining History 1600’s is the age of reasoning; finding reason and experimenting what is observed. Isaac Newton is a pioneer."— Presentation transcript:
Examining History 1600’s is the age of reasoning; finding reason and experimenting what is observed. Isaac Newton is a pioneer in the use of scientific method as a way of thinking. Until 1960’s recognition the need for scientific derived body of knowledge Form classical methods (problem solving) to research From nursing process (problem solving technique) to nursing research)
Science vs. scientific methods Science: studying any subject Scientific methods: using an orderly systematic way of thinking about solving problems Pure science: summarize the universe and may be not used immediately Applied science: using knowledge in practice
Inductive vs. Deductive Inductive : from particular to generalization Deductive : from general to specific, the conclusion are valid not true NO ONE ALONE IS ENOUGH, BOTH ARE A COMPLEMENTARY PARTS.
What is nursing research Generally, research is a systematic inquiry that use orderly, disciplined methods to answer questions. Nursing research is a systematic search for the validation of knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession
Systematic: a logically progression through a series of steps according to a specified plan Control: imposing conditions. Mainly in scientific approach and NOT nursing research, the investigator used an empirical evidence (evidence that is rooted in objective reality and gathered using humane senses)
Scientific approach of knowledge is a set of orderly, systematic and controlled procedures to acquire information Scientific research is the application of the scientific approach
Importance of nursing research: 1.Solid foundation 2.Develop, refine, extend the base of nursing knowledge 3.Define the parameters of nursing 4.Evaluation of nursing interventions 5.Important to understand the nursing dimensions.
Limitation of nursing research Health care settings are not comparable to laboratories Human experiences are far form experimentations and examinations Scientific approach is objective and does not accept subjective information e.g. human perceptions and meanings Ethical issues make scientific method Impractical
Source of nursing knowledge Traditions Authority Experience Logical reasoning (inductive vs. deductive) Disciplined research (borrowed research)
Purpose of Research IDENTIFICATION DESCRPITION EXPOLRATION EXPLANATION PREDICTION & CONTROL
Examples Identification What is cultural competence form nurses’ perspective? Description What is characteristics cigarette smokers at the school of nursing?
Examples Exploration What are the factors that affect application of nursing care plan at the Jordanian hospitals? Explanation What is the relationship between increasing in blood pressure and brain embolism?
Examples Prediction Is the number of upper respiratory tract infection cases among newborns on ventilators affected if we increased the number of suctioning using normal saline per shift?
Methods of Research QUANTITATIVE Associated with positivism Use a scientific approach Mainly to understand the phenomenon of interest QUALITATIVE Mainly to understand the human experience Flexible Rich and in-depth information
Research Terms Study Subjects Researcher (investigator, principal investigator) Addressing a problem Study participants (respondents &/or informants A person who conduct the study
Research Terms Phenomenon/ concept An abstraction based on observation and chch. of certain behavior e.g. cope, stress, laziness, addiction, abuse, rejection, resistance, democracy, bureaucracy, death, life, sadness, happiness Its concept in quant, and phenomenon or topic in qual. studies
Research Terms Construct → Abstract or mental representation inferred from situation →Invented or constructed by the researcher for the purpose of his research e.g., self-care, goal attainment, drug abuse, self management, racial discrimination, blood pressure, child abuse.
Research Terms Theoretical vs. Conceptual Theory: is a systematic abstract explanation of the relationship between the concepts Conceptual model (also conceptual framework, conceptual scheme) Less formal attempt at organizing phenomenon than theory.
Research Terms Theoretical vs. Conceptual both use concepts as building blocks, and used to generate hypothesis Conceptual models lack the deductive system of propositions that asserts the relationship between the concepts Conceptual model is not directly testable by the researcher Conceptual models represent the perspective of the designers.
Research Terms Variables Anything vary (take different values) e.g., weight, blood pressure, Ht, age Continuous, discrete and categorical Active vs. attribute Dependent vs. independent (effect-cause)
Examples Dependent vs. Independent What is the effect of number of cigarette smoked and the incident of lung cancer among third and 4 th year nursing school students Dependent: incident of lung cancer Independent: number of cigarette
Examples Is there a relationship between the level of education and the of hours of exercise per week Dependent: level of education Independent: Number of hours of exercise per week
Examples Which is more affected by the number of working hours per shift in the ICU, turn over rate or number of incident reports. Independent: number of working hours Dependent/s: numbers of incident reports and turn over rate
Research Terms Heterogeneity vs. homogeneity Operational definitions Data (quantitative, qualitative) Relationships: a connection or bond between phenomena or concepts