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(Identifying research problem) (Chapter 11)

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1 (Identifying research problem) (Chapter 11)
Sources of research problem: Personal experience. Literature sources. 3. Existing resources. 4.Previous research.

2 Research problem considerations
Ethical issues: Informed consent: means the subjects agree to participate in studies about which they have complete understanding of the study before the study begins. The major elements of informed consent concern the researcher qualifications, subject selection process, purpose of study, study procedures, potential risks and benefits to subjects, compensation, alternative procedures, anonymity and confidentiality, right to refuse to participate, offer to answer questions, and means of obtaining study results.

3 Anonymity: means that no one can identify the subjects in the study.

4 Confidentiality: means that the researcher will protect the subjects identities.

5 The nurse researcher must act as a patient advocate
The nurse researcher must act as a patient advocate. This advocacy involves protecting patients privacy and dignity and ensuring that there are no undue physical or psychological risks to subjects. Particular attention should be given to the rights of certain vulnerable groups, such as children, geriatric clients, prisoners, and unconscious or sedated patients.

6 11. Significance to nursing
11. Significance to nursing. Will clients or health care professionals benefits from the findings of this study? Will the body of nursing knowledge be increased as the result of this study? Can nurse use the results? If the answers to these questions are yes the problem has significance for nursing.

7 111. Personal motivation and interest.

8 Researcher qualification: Research conducted by nurses who have received educational preparation.

9 V. Feasibility of study:
a. Time b. Cost. c. Equipment and supplies. d. Administrative support. e. peer support. f. Availability of subjects.

10 Problem statement criteria
Written in interrogative sentence form: the use of a question format to state the research problem seems to be the clearest way to identify the problem area of a study. If a declarative sentences is used to describe the problem area, the desire to seek an answer to the problem does not seem as clear-cut.

11 Declarative form: to determine the relationship between the number of hours that baccalaureate nursing students have studied and their anxiety levels before the midterm examination.

12 Interrogative form: Is there a relationship between the number of hours that baccalaureate nursing students have studied and their anxiety levels before the midterm examination . A research problem should always be stated in a complete and grammatically correct sentences, research consumer can read, understand, and respond to. Includes population:

13 Includes the variable (s).
One variable studies: when a study is of an exploratory nature and contains only one variable, it may called a univariate study.e.g. What sources of work stress are identified by thoracic intensive care unit nurses.

14 C. Multible - varaible studies: (multivariate study).
Two-variable studies: Research in nursing, as well as in other disciplines, is frequently concerned with two variables( called bivariate study), one variable called independent and dependent variable. e.g. Is there a correlation between the number of sources of stress reported by nurses in a thoracic intensive care unit and the nurses desire to leave employment in the thoracic intensive care unit. C. Multible - varaible studies: (multivariate study).

15 4. Empirically testable: testable problem statements contain variables that can be measured by the researcher.

16 Problem statement format:
Correlation statement: Format: is there a correlation between x (independent variable) and y (dependent variable) in the population? Example: Is there a correlation between anxiety and midterm examination scores of baccalaureate nursing students?

17 Comparative study Descriptive study: Format: Is there a difference in y (dependent variable) between people in the population who have x characteristic (independent variable) and those who do not have x characteristics. Example: is there a difference in readiness to learn about preoperative teaching between preoperative patients who have high anxiety level compared with preoperative patients who do not have high anxiety level?

18 B. Experimental study Format: is there a difference in y (dependent variable) between group A who received x (independent variable) and group B who did not receive x? Example: is there a difference in the preoperative anxiety levels of patients who were taught relaxation techniques compared to those patients who were not taught relaxation techniques.

19 Critiquing the problem statement
is the problem (purpose) statement clear? is the problem statement written in a single declarative or interrogatory sentence? Are the study variables and the population included in the problem statement? Does the problem statement indicated that the study would be ethical? is the feasibility of the study apparent when reading the problem statement? is the significance of the study to nursing apparent in the problem statement?

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