Presentation on theme: "DED 101 Educational Psychology, Guidance And Counseling"— Presentation transcript:
1 DED 101 Educational Psychology, Guidance And Counseling The State University of Zanzibar2011
2 OUTLINE Meaning of Educational Psychology. Aspects of Educational PsychologyImportance of Educational Psychology for the Teacher
3 Psychology and education Educational psychology is derived from two major concepts education and psychology.Psychology provides explanation of the general idea about behavior.Education’s major concern is practice. These practices are based on the general idea or laws formulated by psychology.Educational psychology focuses on teaching and learning. The focus is on assessment and other aspects related to teaching and learning.Educational psychology facilitates the work of the teacher by solving teaching problems, and guides the teacher on what to do and how to do.
4 Educational Psychology is the scientific discipline that addresses the questions“Why do some students learn more than others?”and“What can be done to improve that learning?”
5 Where is ep applied?Educational Psychology is applied in the following major areas:Curriculum plan and designEducational and school leadershipEducational measurement and evaluationClassroom management.Educational research.Classroom managementTeaching methods, materials in designing and using.School guidance and counselingPlanning lessons
6 What Is educational psychology? Definitions:(Oxford Concise Dictionary:2009) defines educational psychology as a branch of psychology that studies children in an educational setting and is concerned with teaching and learning methods, cognitive development, and aptitude assessment.(Atkinson: 2009)defines educational psychology as a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings.(Elliot eta al; 2000) is the application of psychology and psychological methods to the study of development, learning, motivation, instruction, assessment, and related issues that influence the interaction of teaching and learning.(Slavin;1988) Educational psychology is the study of learners, learning and teaching.
7 Educational Psychology… is a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings.
8 Aspects of educational psychology Therefore,As educational psychology focuses on teaching and learning it logically means that it includes the learner, the learning process, the teacher and the teaching process.
9 The learnerThe learner is the target in teaching and learning process. Therefore, he must be understood by the teacher or by the educator to device effective strategies of teaching to involve the learner into effective learning process.Characteristics of a learner to be understood by the teacher are:Behavior of the learner related to age. This is studied in child developmentThe learner's personalityPhysical characteristics (strong, weak, disability)Mental ability and mental health.Emotional characteristicsSocial characteristics affecting learning (family, peer relations etc.)Moral characteristics.
10 The learning processThe teacher should understand how the learner learns. This includes all the activities included in and experiences encouraged in school.Children learn through observation, experimentation, manipulation of objects, acting, listening, asking, imitating etc.These mode of learning are sustained by teachers or adult’s motivation, encouragement and challenges.(More about this on learning approaches)
11 The TEACHING PROCESSTeaching is the process of facilitating students’ learning by putting the learner into the most conducive environment for learning, guiding, supporting, instructing, giving good treatment , understand and help students to solve problems, planning lesson plans, encouraging, leading, observing etc.It is generally accepted that by understanding the learner and the learning process, the teacher will be able to organize effective teaching.Psychology helps the teacher to understand his/her roles and responsibilities, develop decision making, abilities, ability to choose teaching strategies and materials.
12 The teacher Is the one who facilitates learning. Helps others to gain experience, acquire knowledge and skillsMeasure students’ learning.Correcting students’ learning.Psychology will help the teacher to understand :His/her attitude about learning,ChildrenProfessional responsibilitiesHow to behave.How to interact with students.How to improve his/her knowledge and understanding in teaching subjects and children as well..
13 Reflection & Observation What were the characteristics of the most effective teachers in your educational experience?.
14 Effective Teaching Professional Knowledge and Skills Teachers Must Exhibit:Subject matter competenceClassroom management skills that create an optimal learning environmentInstructional planning skillsGoal-setting
15 Effective Teaching Professional Knowledge and Skills Teachers Must Exhibit:Ability to encourage student motivation: provide real-world learning opportunities that allow students to think creatively and deeply about projectsAbility to model good communication skillSensitivity in multicultural environmentsTechnological skills to integrate computers appropriately in the classroom
16 Effective Teaching Commitment and Motivation Effective Teachers:Have a good attitudeCare about studentsInvest time and effortBring a positive attitude and enthusiasm to the classroom
17 Effective Teaching PROFESSIONAL GROWTH Effective Teachers:Developing a positive identitySeek advice from competent, experienced teachersNever stop learningBuild up good resources and supports
18 Characteristics of Best Teachers Source; (Michelle;2009)
19 Characteristics of Worst Teachers Source; (Michelle;2009)
20 Importance of educational psychology for the teachers The knowledge of educational psychology helps teachers in various ways. It improves the teacher’s ability in teaching and managing students.Some of the uses of educational psychology are as follows:It enables the teacher to understand children’s behavior and characteristics, the cause and effect of their behavior, their attitudes, mental ability, their problems, that are related to their age and environment they live, their learning styles and how they grow and develop. This helps the teacher to understand ways of assisting them to solve their personal and learning problems and planning for their learning, in an effective way
21 Importance of educational psychology for the teachers Enabling the teacher to understand how environment, rearing style, values and culture of children influence their behavior, perception and mental ability. Understanding this will enable the teacher to create a conducive environment for children’s effective learning.Educational psychology helps the teacher gain techniques and strategies for studying his students. Human behavior is difficult to predict even though various scientific theories attempt to explain it. With the knowledge of educational psychology the teacher will be able to gain more knowledge about his/her students for effective planning of their learning.
22 Importance of educational psychology for the teachers The knowledge of educational psychology improves teacher’s ability to choose/design the most appropriate teaching strategies. When children learn their learning styles and attitudes towards learning appear. So, educational psychology helps the teacher to analyze the styles and attitudes and use them to design effective learning for children.Educational psychology helps to improve teacher’s ability to choose and construct appropriate measure of student’s learning according to knowledge level, mental ability, learning environment, etc.
23 Importance of educational psychology for the teachers Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand children’s individual difference, behavior, physical and physiological, mental and personality differences. Children’s individual differences appear on how they learn , how they adapt to the environment, how they build social relationship and how they can be motivated.
24 THANK YOU FOR LISTENING END OF LECTURE THREETHANK YOU FOR LISTENING