Attachment overheads Class Notes. Attachment Theories of John Bowlby Parent-child relationship What happens when children are raised in relative states.
Published byModified over 5 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Attachment overheads Class Notes. Attachment Theories of John Bowlby Parent-child relationship What happens when children are raised in relative states."— Presentation transcript:
Attachment Theories of John Bowlby Parent-child relationship What happens when children are raised in relative states of maternal separation? Films – institutionalized children staying in hospital wards. Three-phase separation behaviors resulted.
Attachment Bowlby felt that the mother-child bond was adaptive – important for survival. Bowlby was very influenced by Karl Lorenz and his work on imprinting – innateness and adaptiveness of behaviors. Bowlby felt that attachment was innate on the part of the infant and caregiver.
Attachment Certain behaviors connected with attachment. Critical or sensitive period for the development of attachment. Monotrophy – main attachment figure. Model for future relationships.
Attachment Mary Ainsworth – conditions that activate children’s attachment systems. Strange situation – baby in an unfamiliar room with a stranger.
Attachment Eight episodes measured four behaviors. Willingness to explore Separation anxiety Stranger anxiety Reunion Behavior
Attachment Definition of attachment – put slide up here.
Attachment Infant Characteristics that promote Attachment: “kewpie doll” appearance Rooting, sucking, grasping reflexes Cooing, babbling Smiling Crying Responsiveness to social overtures
Attachment Infant Characteristics that make attachment difficult Physically unattractive (e.g.) premature Reflexes weak Irritable, few smiles Little pleasant vocalization Irritating shrill Easily over stimulated, resists or ignores social overtures.
Attachment Caregiver characteristics that hinder attachment Maternal depression Abused mother Mother does not want baby Mother unable to take lead in establishing interactions Mother insensitive to infant cues and may under or overstimulate child.
Attachment Several children in family Poor marital relationship.
Attachment Schaffer and Emerson Stages in Social Attachment Asocial stage – 0-6 weeks Indiscriminate attachment stage – 6 wks to 6-7 months Specific attachment stage – 7-9 months Multiple attachment stage – shortly after stage 3
Attachment Theories of attachment: Psychoanalytical Theory Learning Theory Ethological Theory
Attachment What does the research say about attachment?
Attachment Ainsworth’s Caregiving Hypothesis Quality of attachment dependent on attention, responsiveness, sensitivity. Inconsistent caregiving leads to insecure attachment (anxious / resistant) Impatient caregiving leads to anxious and avoidant attachment. Abusive caregiving leads to disorganized / disoriented attachment.
Attachment Kagan’s Temperament Hypothesis Quality of infant’s attachment dependent upon: Easy temperment = secure attachment Difficult temperment = insecure (anx/res) Slow to warm up temperment = insecure (anx / avoidant) Research evidence?
Attachment Symptoms of a reactive attachment disorder – see handout on the website. What can we do to help? Provide highly predictable environment. Avoid intimacy too soon. Holding therapy? Failure to thrive cases. Reparenting work.