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Clinical Phonetics.

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Presentation on theme: "Clinical Phonetics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clinical Phonetics

2 Disorders Articulation Disorders vs. Phonological Disorders

3 Methods of evaluation Standardized tests Spontaneous connected speech
Consonants Consonant clusters Sometimes vowels Spontaneous connected speech

4 Analyzing results Misarticulations/articulation errors
Phoneme to phoneme analysis Types of errors/categories Substitution Addition Omission Distortion Manner, place and voicing categories

5 Phonological development
Disparity of Findings Socioeconomic Number of subjects Method of speech sampling Determining mastery – the age at which a particular phoneme is produced with some degree of accuracy (75-100% or %) Customary Production – the age at which a particular phoneme is produced with greater than 50% accuracy in at least two word positions. Gender of subjects Dialects

6 Developmental findings
90% mastery of several phonemes occurs by 3 Master of English phonemes may not be complete until 7-9 years Manner – nasal, stops acquired first, then glides, fricatives, liquids and affricates Place – front (labial/alverolar) produced first, then velar and palatal.

7 Phonological process Based on Natural Phonology theory – young children are born with innate processes necessary for the production of speech. They often simplify the adult form. As they mature, they learn to suppress the processes, and produce the appropriate form

8 Phonological Processes
Simplification of adult speech patterns As children mature they learn to suppress these processes Child is not viewed as not having a sound in his phonetic inventory, but as using a process that results in the deletion of that sound Are found in typically developing children

9 Phonological Processes
Categories Syllable structure processes Substitution processes Assimilatory processes

10 Phonological Processes
Table 7.2

11 Syllable Structure Processes
Syllables are simplified, usually into a consonant-vowel (CV) pattern CV patterns among the first to be used by infants

12 Syllable Structure Processes
Weak syllable deletion Weak syllable is omitted when it precedes or follows a stressed syllable Final consonant deletion Final consonant is deleted Patten becomes open syllable (CV) Children start to use final consonants by 3:0 Process suppressed by 3:6 Weak syllable deletion Telephone – tefon, tomato – meiro, paper – peip page 206 Final consonant deletion bake – bei, cat-ca, mom-ma page 207

13 Syllable Structure Processes
Reduplication Repetition of a syllable of a word Total reduplication – entire syllable Partial reduplication – repetition of just a consonant or vowel Suppressed before 3:0 Cluster reduction Deletion of a consonant from a consonant cluster If three sounds in consonant cluster then one or two may be deleted Suppressed at 4:0 Reduplication – mommy – mama, bottle – bada Cluster reduction – snow-no, play-pei, strip – traip, taip or raip

14 Substitution Processes
The replacement of one class of phonemes for another

15 Substitution Processes
Stopping Substitution of a stop for a fricative or affricate Common because stops are acquired before fricatives Usually for a stop produced with the same or similar place of articulation May have a change in voicing Suppressed by 2:6 to 5:0

16 Substitution Processes
Stopping Fricative/affricate Substitute stop /s,,, /t/ ,,, /d/  /p/  /b/ Sake for /teik/ Zoo for /du/ Fat for pat Think for tingk Ship for tip Jane for deIn

17 Substitution Processes
Fronting Substitution of velar and palatal consonants with alveolar place of articulation Suppressed by 2:6 to 3:0

18 Substitution Processes
Fronting Velar Alveolar /k/ /t/ /g/ /d/ // /n/ Palatal Alveolar // /s/ // /ts/ // /z/ // /dz/ Cat to tat Wash to was Juice to dzuz Chip to tsip Get to det Cookie to tuti Match to mat

19 Substitution Processes
Deaffrication Substitution of fricative for an affricate Gliding Substitution of glides /w/ or /j/ for liquid /l/ and /r/ Suppressed by 5:0 + Deaffrication Chip to ship Matches to mashes Juice to us Ridge to ri  Ledge to lez Gliding red to wed look to wuk or juk green to gwin like to jaik blue to bwu carrot to kewat hello to hejou grow to gwou

20 Substitution Processes
Vocalization Substitution of a vowel for postvocalic /l/ or /r/ Common in words with /l/, syllabic /l/ stressed and unstressed shwars Vowels substituted // // //, // Tiger to taigu Turn to t n Third to thud Deer to diu Hair to heu Help to heup Milk to miuk Meal to miou Little to wiou

21 Assimilatory Processes
Alteration in phoneme production due to phonetic environment – Assimilation Assimilatory processes Labial Velar Nasal Voicing Types Progressive Regressive Not present in all typically developing children Suppressed by 3:0

22 Assimilatory Processes
Labial assimilation Nonlabial phoneme is produced with a labial place due to presence of labial phoneme in word Alveolar assimilation Nonalveolar is produced with an alveolar place of articulation due to presence of alveolar phoneme in the word Labial assimilation Book to bup (progressive assimilation) Mad to mab (progressive Cap to pap - regressive Swing to wing regressive Time – tain (progressive) Neck – net (progressive) Shut to sut regressive Bat to dat regressive Not easy to distinguish between assimilation or substitution process

23 Assimilatory Processes
Velar assimilation Nonvelar phoneme is produced with a velar place of articulation due to presence of velar phoneme in the word Voicing assimilation Prevocalic Voicing of a normally unvoiced consonant When consonant precedes the nucleus of a syllable Devoicing Syllable final voiced phonemes that either Precede a pause or silence between words, or Occur at the end of an utterance Final phoneme assimilates to the silence following the word Velar assimilation Cup to kuk progressive Gone to gong progressive Take to keik regressive Doggy to gagi regressive Voicing prevocalic pig to big cup to gup devoicing bad to bat hose to hos (keep the long vowel)

24 Phonological Processes
May occur individually or in combination More than one process may affect the pronunciation of any phoneme June to /dun/ (deaffrication, stopping and fronting) Not all processes occur in typically developing children

25 Common Phonological Processes
Most common in typically developing children Weak syllable deletion Final consonant deletion Gliding Cluster reduction

26 Suppression Suppression does not happen all at once
Most processes disappear by the age of 4 Suppressed by the age of three Weak syllable deletion Final consonant deletion Reduplication Fronting Consonant assimilation Prevocalic voicing

27 Suppression Suppressed after the age of three Cluster reduction
Gliding Vocalization Stopping Final devoicing

28 Phonological Disorders
Children may display same types of processes Processes may be suppressed later

29 Processes common to children with phonological disorders
Cluster reduction Weak syllable deletion Final consonant deletion Stopping Velar and palatal fronting Voicing processes Labial, nasal and velar assimilation Liquid simplification (combination of gliding and vocalization)

30 Idiosyncratic Processes
Processes not usually found in the speech of typically developing children Glottal replacement –glottal stop for consonant Backing –velar stop consonant for more anterior consonants Usually involves alveolar and palatals, but may include labials Initial consonant deletion Stops replacing glide Fricatives replacing a stop Glottal replacement – pick to pi?, butter to bu/u Backing – time to kaim, zoon to gum, push to puk Stops replacing glide – yes to des, wait to beIt

31 Independent analysis Inventory of phonemes produced by client
Syllable shapes (open/closed syllables, consonant clusters in initial/final position) Combination of consonants and vowels (CV, CVC) Word shapes (# of syllables) Stress patterns

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