Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Linguistics Ms. Suha Jawabreh Lecture 10."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Linguistics Ms. Suha Jawabreh Lecture 10
Review 1. Define the following terms: Allophone, phoneme, phonotactics, narrow transcription, broad transcription. 2. Give several examples of the following: a. allophonic processes in English. b. Minimal pairs c. Minimal sets 3. Use diacritic marks (symbols) for aspiration, dentalization, nasalization correctly in narrow transcription of words.
-Allophonic processes in English : 1. Aspiration 2. Flapping in American English 3. Nasalization 4. Glottalization ( Glottal replacement) 5. Dentalization
Syllables -What is a syllable? a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word. -What are the basic elements of a syllable? 1.Onset ( one or more consonants) 2. Rime ( or Rhyme) ( consists of the nucleus (the vowel) & the coda (any following consonants)
The syllable Onset Rhyme(rime) nucleus coda Consonant(s) vowel consonant(s)
Analyze the syllable structure of the following one- syllable words in English. 1. Me (CV) 2. eye (V) 3. Kill (CVC) 4. Screen (CCCVC) 5. Ill (VC) 6. Art (VCC) 7. Park (CVCC) 8. Black (CCVC) 9. Text (CVCCC)
Shapes of Syllables in English CCVC VCC CVC V CV VC CVCC CCCVC CVCCC 1.Can you give word examples of each?! 2. What is a consonant cluster?
Co-articulation Effects Co-articulation is the process of making one sound -almost at the same time- as the next. - There are two well-known co-articulation effects (phonological processes): 1. Assimilation 2. Elision
Assimilation Assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound. This can occur either within a word or between words.
Examples: 1. Assimilation in manner of articulation e.g. Nasalization ( Any vowel becomes nasal whenever it immediately precedes a nasal). E.g. pin, ban 2. Assimilation in place of articulation E.g. incomplete, I can go, impossible
Elision Elision is the omission of a sound segment. Consonants disappear in pronunciation if they are: 1. In a consonant cluster 2. In coda position
Examples: Friendship [fr ɛ n ʃɪ p] We asked him [ wi æst ð ɛ m] - Vowels also disappear : Every [ ɛ vri]