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1 L103: Introduction to Linguistics Phonetics—vowels.

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Presentation on theme: "1 L103: Introduction to Linguistics Phonetics—vowels."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 L103: Introduction to Linguistics Phonetics—vowels

2 Last time... ● Consonants

3 Today... ● vowels ● syllables

4 Vowel Articulation Manner = vowel Glottal state = voiced (generally) Place = ???? Make this sequence of vowels, and feel how your tongue moves around in your mouth: i u e o a æ Place for vowels requires us to locate our tongues inside the oral cavity, even though it’s not touching anything…

5 Vowels Vowel Space Apex of Tongue The VOWEL SPACE is divided into a grid, based on the position of the highest, most front part of your tongue as you pronounce that vowel

6 The Vowel Space i e æ o ɛ ʊ u a ɪ

7 i e æ o ɪ ɛ ʊ ɔ u a (ROUND) (LAX) (TENSE) (UNROUND)

8 Other sound properties - diphthongs Some vowels are made up of more than one ‘part’ For example, ‘buy’, ‘bough’, ‘boy’ [ba ɪ ], [ba ʊ ], [bo ɪ ] –or [baj], [baw], [b ɔ j] –or [bai], [bau], [boi] The term for these is ‘diphthong’

9 Diphthongs i e æ o ɪ ɛ ʊ ɔ u a bai boi ba ʊ ([w])([j])

10 A weird fact i e æ o ɪ ɛ ʊ ɔ u a ə

11 Other sound properties - length Finnish: [taka] ‘back’ [takka] ‘fireplace’ [ta:kka] ‘burden’ [taka] ‘back’ vs [takka] ‘fireplace’ –(the notation [kk] indicates a ‘long’ [k]) –(‘long’ means, literally, longer – more milliseconds - than a short sound) [takka] ‘fireplace’ vs. [ta:kka] ‘burden’ –(the notation [a:] indicates a ‘long’ [a]) –(some linguists write long vowels like this [aa] instead of this [a:]) Not all languages use length differences in their phonemic inventory

12 Other sound properties - tone

13 Syllables Arrangements of consonants and vowels Arrangements of things based on their acoustical energy (sonority) Vowels > Liquids > Nasals > Fricatives > Plosives/Stops (Sonority Hierarchy)

14 Parts of a syllable [d a g] “dog” SYLLABLE RIME/Rhyme ONSETNUCLEUSCODA C V C The “NUCLEUS” can also be called the “PEAK”

15 Ideal Sonority contour | | | | ||||| | | | |||| |||| || | SYLLABLE RIME ONSETNUCLEUSCODA C V C

16 How many syllables? Cow [ka ʊ ] Easy. 1. CVV Cowboy [ka ʊ bo ɪ ] Still easy. 2. [ka ʊ.bo ɪ ]CVV.CVV Cowabunga [ka ʊ əb ʌ ŋgə] Easy to count (tap it out) 4. But - harder to parse! [ka ʊ.ə.b ʌ ŋ.gə] or [ka.wə.b ʌ ŋ.gə]? CVV.V.CVC.CV or CV.CV.CVC.CV

17 Syllable Restrictions ● Every naturally occurring human language (we think) allows this kind of syllable: CV ● Only some languages allow syllables to begin with vowels (=onsetless syllables) ● Only some languages allow syllables to end with consonants (=closed syllables) ● Some co-occurrence restrictions: – If you allow CVC and V, you’ll also allow VC – If you allow CVCC, you’ll also allow CVC – If you allow CCCV, you’ll also allow CCV

18 Ideal sonority contour - onset No consonant clusters at all – max of 1 C per onset (and any C is allowed) Some clusters – (low to high sonority): –Stop+liquid (for example, [tl], [pr]) –Stop+glide (for example, [kw], [bj] But no language wants onsets like this: –Liquid+stop (for example, [lt],[rp]) –Glide+stop (for example, [wk],[jb]) –*high-to-low sonority

19 Ideal sonority contour - nucleus Allow ONLY vowels, no consonants –Maybe diphthongs Allow vowels and sonorant consonants –Only liquids? (English) –Liquids and Nasals? Allow any sound in the inventory to be a nucleus –Very rare (Berber, Bella Coola) In general, for syllable peaks: – V > Sonorant (nasals, liquids) > Non-sonorant

20 Ideal sonority contour - coda No codas at all –all syllables are V-final. (Hawaiian) Only single, sonorant coda consonants –Maybe only nasals (Japanese) Any single consonant, but no clusters

21 Syllable restrictions Hawaiian: the only kind of syllable is CV –Therefore, all words will begin with a consonant, AND –All words will end with a vowel, AND –There will never be more than 2 consonants in a row inside of a word English: In addition to CV, we allow onsetless syllables [aj], and closed syllables [dag]. –We also allow consonant clusters in onset and coda

22 The Maximal English Syllable? ● strengths [str ɛ ŋk ɵ s] ● CCCVCCCC ● If CCCV, the first consonant is an [s], and the third is a liquid or glide [r, l, w, j] ● [spl ɪ ts], [skw ɪʃ ], [skju] ● If VCCCC, the last consonant is an [s] or a [t], and it’s an affix (plural or past tense) ● [siks ɵ t] ‘I sixthed it’

23 Next time...

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