Bina Nusantara Syllables consist of a centre which has a little or no obstruction to airflow and which sounds comparatively loud; before and after this centre ( that is the beginning and end of the syllable), there will be greater obstruction to airflow and/or less loud sound. Definition of Syllable 3
Bina Nusantara 1)Minimum Syllable : a single vowel in isolation, e.g. the word ‘are’ / a: / ; ‘or’ and ‘err’. This is also called peak. 2)Syllable with onset: there is a phoneme preceding the peak, e.g. the word ‘bar’ /ba:/, ‘key’ /ki:/ 3)Syllable with coda: there is a phoneme following the peak, e.g. the word ‘am’ / æm/; ‘ought’ / ɔt/ 4) Syllable with onset and coda: there are phonemes preceding and following the peak, e.g. the word ‘fill’ /fil/; ‘run’ /r ʌn/. This is also called complete syllable. Nature of Syllable 4
Bina Nusantara The structure of English Syllable A consonant cluster is the combination of two or more consonants in a syllable. There are two positions of consonant clusters: - initial position : a position that begins a syllable - final position : a position that follows a vowel and ends a syllable. The maximum number of consonant clusters in initial position is 3 (three) and in final position is 4 (four).
Bina Nusantara Initial Consonant Clusters Positional Characteristics of 3 initial consonant clusters - Only /s/ can occupy the first position ( pre initial) - Only the voiceless stops /p t k/ appear in second position (initial) - Only / l r j w/ appear in third position (post initial) Positional Characteristics of 2 initial consonant clusters Obstruents (stops, fricative, affricate) occupy the first position while sonorants (nasal, liquid and glide) occupy the second position.
Bina Nusantara Initial Consonant Clusters S Lrjw Psplayspray-Spew T-string-Stew Ksclerosisscreensqueakskewer
Bina Nusantara Final Consonant Clusters The maximum number of consonant clusters is four. These clusters have the following positions: - Pre Final - Final - Post Final 1 - Post Final 2
Bina Nusantara Types of final consonant clusters Two final consonant clusters are sonorant (stops, fricatives, affricate) and obstruent (nasal, glide, liquid) Three consonant clusters consist of : - pre final, final, post final, as in ‘helped’, ‘banks’ - final, post final 1, post final 2, as in ‘fifths’, next Four consonant clusters consist of : - pre final, final, post final 1, post final 2, as in ‘twelfths’, ‘prompts’ - final, post final 1, post final 2, post final 3, as in ‘sixths’, ‘texts’.
Bina Nusantara Maximum syllable structure Pre- initial post-VOWEL pre- final post- post- post- initialinitial ! final final1 final2 final3 !____________! ! !_______________________! ONSETPEAKCODA The vowel and coda are known as rhyme. The syllable must have a peak but onset and coda are not obligatory.