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Presentation on theme: "Syllable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Syllable

2 What is a syllable? A syllable is a word or part of a word that has only one vowel sound. All words have at least one syllable. Every syllable has one vowel sound. A syllable may or may not contain any consonants. When we talk about the number of the syllable the sound which is produced is important. Note: Suprasegmental features (stress, tone…) affect all the segments of a syllable.

3 Some rules about syllables:
A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second vowel if the first vowel is long (vc/v).Example belong A single consonant between two vowels goes with the first vowel if the first vowel is accented and short (vc/v). Example guitar Two or more consonants between vowels are divided if the first vowel is not long. Prefixes and suffixes usually form separate syllables. Examples unkind and kindly Never divide two vowels next to each other if they carry one sound. Example bread.

4 The tree diagram of a syllable

5 A syllable consist of an onset and a rhyme.
Rhyme consist of two parts, nucleus and a (coda).

6 Onset The beginning sounds of the syllable; the ones preceding the nucleus. These are always consonants in English. The nucleus is  a vowel in most cases, although the consonants [ r ], [ l ], [ m ], [ n ], and the velar nasal (the 'ng' sound) can also be the nucleus of a syllable. Note: Onsets are strongly preferred over codas.

7 Rhyme (or rime): Rhyme = nucleus + coda
The rest of the syllable, after the onset (the underlined portions of the words above). The rhyme can also be divided up: Rhyme = nucleus + coda

8 Nucleus Is the core or essential part of a syllable. A nucleus must be present in order for a syllable to be present. In English and most other languages, most syllable nuclei are vowels. The English liquids [ r  l ] and the nasals [ m  n ] can be the nuclei of syllables under certain conditions. [ r ] can be a nucleus as easily as a vowel, in any position: the words 'bird', have [ r ] as the nucleus; in other words, there is no vowel in the pronunciation of these syllables, even though they have one in the spelling. [brd] [ l ] and the nasals [ m n ] become syllable nuclei when they follow an alveolar consonant in the last syllable of a word. This happens in the relaxed or casual rather than very formal articulation of the word. Compare casual vs. formal pronunciations of 'button', 'bottle', 'bottom'. Note 1: The nucleus is the most sonorant sound in the syllable. Note 2: Consonants in codas are weakened.

9 English has a wide variety of syllable types:
 V oh VC at VCC ask VCCC asked CV no CVC not CVCC ramp CVCCC ramps CCV flew CCVC flute CCVCC flutes CCVCCC crafts CCCV spree CCCVC spleen CCCVCC strength CCCVCCC strengths

10 Syllabification Rules
Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables. Syllabification may also refer to the process of a consonant becoming a syllable nucleus. In syllabification divide off the affixes. When a single consonant is between vowels, divide after a long vowel or after consonant if vowel is short. Here’s something to remember: You can’t divide a one-syllable word Every syllable has to have a vowel!

11 Types of words Mono syllable ( A word consisits of a single syllable, like bat) Disyllable ( A word consisting of two syllables, like father) Polysyllable ( A word consisting of more than three syllables, like: intelligence)

12 Different Types of a Syllable
Open Syllable Closed Syllable Vowel consonant e syllable Consonant “l-e” syllable “r” controlled syllable Vowel Digraph/Diphthong syllable

13 Open Syllable Starts with a Consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k,l, m, n p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z) Next letter is a Vowel (a, e, i, o, u and y) Proof: cv (consonant/vowel) Examples: to be try show Note: Vowel usually has a long sound.

14 Closed Syllable Starts with a Consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k,l, m, n p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z) Next letter is a Vowel (a, e, i, o, u and y) Ends with a Consonant Proof: CVC (consonant/vowel/consonant) Examples: Black scratch hand dress Note: In Closed Syllable Vowel is usually short. There are some exceptions: old, olt, ost…

15 Vowel consonant e syllable
Ends in a silent e (“e” makes no sound) Previous vowel is a long vowel Proof: cross out silent e Examples: Made hide rope

16 Consonant “l-e” syllable
This syllable has only three letters – a consonant, an l and an e. The e is silent The consonant and the l are sounded like a blend This syllable must be the last syllable in a multisyllabic word Examples: Stable purple bugle

17 “r” controlled syllable
Has to have a vowel before the “r” The “r” controls the sound of the vowel The vowel, therefore, may not sound like you would expect it to sound. Examples: Cart fort start

18 Vowel Digraph/Diphthong syllable
Having two vowels making one sound is called Digraph (ai, ay, ee, ea, ie, igh, oa, ow, ui, ue, ew…) or diphthong (oi, oy, aw, ow/owl…) First Vowel is long . Second Vowel is usually silent . Proof: vv Examples: Hair Stray Haul Note: Two vowels together are not always a vowel digraph or diphthong.

19 In another classification syllables are divided in to four types:
Weak syllable Strong syllable Light Syllable Heavy Syllable

20 Weak Syllable The vowel in a weak syllable is short.
Example: In the word ‘father’ ; the second syllable, which is weak, includes the vowel which is shorter and less loud than the first (and strong) syllable.

21 Strong Syllable Strong syllables consist of long vowels.
Example; In the word ‘father’ ; the first syllable is stressed and it is the strong syllable. Note 1:The peak of the syllable determines if the syllable is weak or strong. Note 2: Strong syllables are always stressed.

22 Light syllable or CV Heavy syllable or CVV
  A syllable with a short vowel as the nucleus and no coda (a CV syllable). Heavy syllable or  CVV A heavy syllable is a syllable with a branching nucleus or a branching rime.

23 Heavy Syllable and Light Syllable As you can see on the left side we have a heavy nucleus and on the right side we have a heavy coda.

24 Islamic Azad University
Mahya Nejadian M.A. Student in TEFL Islamic Azad University Zanjan Branch Autumn 2013


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