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Chapter 8: Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice and Discrimination Racial and Ethnic Interactions Sociological.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice and Discrimination Racial and Ethnic Interactions Sociological."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice and Discrimination Racial and Ethnic Interactions Sociological Analysis of Ethnic/Racial Inequality

2 Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Race – A group of people identified as having certain physical characteristics Endowed with social meaning

3 Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Ethnicity – People who share common cultural characteristics and ethnic identity Share a sense of “oneness” based on: –Religion –National origin –Cultural heritage

4 Minority Group A social group systematically denied access to power and resources available to the dominant groups of society Not necessarily fewer in number than dominant group.

5 Racism A set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group –Justifies inequality –Assumes genetic differences 5

6 Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice (an attitude): –Idea about characteristics of a group –Applied to all members of group –Unlikely to change regardless of evidence 6

7 Prejudice and Discrimination Discrimination (an action): –Unequal treatment of individuals because of their social group

8 Types of Discrimination Individual discrimination Carried out by one person against another 8

9 Types of Discrimination Institutional discrimination Systematic discrimination by social institutions: Political Economic Educational

10 Examples: Institutional Discrimination Last-hired-first-fired practices Identifying job applicants through referrals from existing workers Interviewer’s ease of communication with people of the same race/gender/ethnicity/class

11 Examples: Institutional Discrimination Classroom: Instructor uses slang or examples unknown to students from certain socioeconomic or cultural backgrounds

12 Examples: Institutional Discrimination Office hours, or significant learning opportunities, During times commonly used for work-study jobs or athletic practices

13 Prejudice:  Social class  Sex  Sexual orientation  Age  Political affiliation  Race  Ethnicity

14 Prejudice A rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people Prejudices are prejudgments –Positive or negative –Part of culture so everyone has some prejudice

15 Stereotypes An exaggerated description applied to every person in some category Examples? Especially harmful to minorities in the workplace

16 Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale SOCIAL DISTANCE –How closely people are willing to interact with members of some category –Emory Bogardus People felt more social distance from some categories than others

17 Bogardus Social Distance Scale ogardus02.htm ogardus02.htm

18 Racism Belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Powerful and harmful form of prejudice Existed throughout world history Widespread throughout the history of the U.S.

19 Theories of Prejudice 1. SCAPEGOAT THEORY –Frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged SCAPEGOAT –Person or category of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles –Minorities often used as scapegoats

20 2. AUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY THEORY Extreme prejudice is personality trait Strong prejudice toward one minority--intolerant of all minorities Authoritarian Personalities –Rigidly conforms to cultural values –Moral issues as clear-cut matters of right and wrong

21 Opposite pattern People who express tolerance toward one minority Likely to be accepting of all minorities

22 3. CULTURE THEORY Some prejudice is found in everyone –“culture of prejudice” Learn categories of people as “better” or “worse” than others –Socialization process

23 4. CONFLICT THEORY Prejudice used by powerful to oppress others Example: Unemployed people blame immigrants for taking their jobs or for low wages Powerful people are really to blame—lower wages=more profit

24 Four models 1.Pluralism 2.Assimilation 3.Segregation 4.Genocide

25 Pluralism People of all races & ethnicities –Distinct –Equal social standing

26 Assimilation Minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture

27 Segregation Physical & social separation of categories of people de jure segregation (by law) de facto segregation (in fact)

28 Genocide Systematic killing of one category of people by another category of people Common throughout history Native Americans by Europeans Jews by Nazis Armenians by Turks Muslims by Serbs in Bosnia

29 Genocide in Rwanda 1994 - 800,000 Deaths Beginning on April 6, 1994 For the next hundred days Up to 800,000 Tutsis were killed by Hutu militia Used clubs & machetes As many as 10,000 killed each day.

30 Genocide in Rwanda Rwanda--Central Africa Two main ethnic groups, the Hutu and the Tutsi Hutus 90% of population In the past, the Tutsi minority was considered the aristocracy of Rwanda Dominated Hutu peasants for decades


32 Race Ethnicity in the United States Give me your tired, poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send these, the homeless, tempest- tossed to me: I lift my lamp beside the golden door. –Emma Lazarus (Base of Statue of Liberty)

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