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© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Race A category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society deem socially important. Racial types, e.g., Caucasian, Negroid, and Mongoloid, are misleading at best because high percentages of groups in Canada are mixed.
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Ethnicity A shared cultural heritage Canada is a multiethnic society with two official languages and people from dozens of ethnic groups. Minority: share a distinctive identity distinguished by physical or cultural traits and are disadvantaged, though not always less than 50%, e.g., women and Blacks in South Africa.
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Racism Prejudice: a rigid or irrational generalization about an entire category of people Stereotype: prejudicial views or descriptions of some categories of people Racism: the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Theories of Prejudice Scapegoat theory: Disadvantaged people who from frustration unfairly blame minorities (scapegoats) for their own problems. Authoritarian personality theory: A personality trait of intolerance to minorities. They are ridged moralists with little education who see things in right and wrong. (Cont’d)
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Theories of Prejudice (Cont’d) Culture theory: Everyone has some prejudice because it is embedded in culture. Conflict theory: Self-justification for the rich and powerful to oppress others, e.g., Chinese railroad labourers. Minorities may cultivate climate of race consciousness in order to win greater power and privileges.
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Discrimination Treating of various categories of people unequally. Institutional (prejudice and)discrimination: bias in attitudes or action in the operation of society’s institutions. The vicious cycle: stereotypes can become real to believers and victims from W.I. Thomas (Chap. 6).
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Fig 14-1
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Fig 14-2
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Majority and Minority Patterns of Interaction Pluralism: a state in which people of all races and ethnicities, while distinct, have social parity. Institutional completeness: the complexity of community organizations that meet the needs of members Assimilation: the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category. Segregation: physical and social separation of categories of people. Genocide: the systematic killing of one category of people by another.
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Race and Ethnicity in Canada Many thousands of years ago Aboriginal people came to the Americas. 55 founding nations greeted the … French and British established settlements in the 1600s and 1700s Since the mid-1950s, southern Europeans came followed by Asian, African, and Caribbean
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Race and Ethnicity in Canada (Cont’d) English Canadians: 20% claim to be English or part-English French Canadians: 16% claim to be French or part-French Visible minorities: 13.4% claim to be visible minorities, mostly in three cities Many now claim to be Canadian, but that varies from region to region. (Cont’d)
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Special-Status Societies Aboriginal Almost 1 million Inuit, Métis, and Indians Quest for self determination, e.g., Nunavut The Québécois After being at a disadvantage since the “conquest”, the Québécois have developed since the Quiet Revolution in the early 1960s. Separatist claims and parties, formerly prominent, are now in decline. (Cont’d)
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Immigration to Canada: 100 Year Perspective 1905-1914: the peak decade 2.5 million immigrants 1950s: German, Dutch, and S. Europeans Most recently with the points system criteria: E. Asia, S. Asia, and Caribbean 19% of the population were born outside Canada. Most come to Ontario and British Columbia
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Canada Map 14-1
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Visible Minorities “Persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non- Caucasian in race or non-white in colour” Canadian Employment Equity Act Visible minorities now constitute 13.4% of Canadians and almost 40% of Toronto and Vancouver. While highly educated, they tend to earn less than all Canadians and women show double disadvantage.
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Table 14-3
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Race and Ethnicity: Past and Future Many immigrants now try to join Canadian society while maintaining their traditional cultures. Some have built ethnic enclaves. We are a “community of communities”. Our survival depends on our success in forging an identity out of diversity.
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