Presentation on theme: "Race and Ethnicity Chapter 11 Society, The Basics 10th Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Race and Ethnicity Chapter 11 Society, The Basics 10th Edition John J. Macionis
2 The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity Race – a ______ constructed category composed of people who share ___________ transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.
3 The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity Ethnicity – a shared ______ heritage.Race involves highlighting ________ traits.Ethnicity involves highlighting cultural traits.
4 MinoritiesA minority – any category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural _______ , that a society sets apart and subordinates.Characteristics:They share a distinctive ______.Subordination (social disadvantage).
5 Prejudice & Stereotypes Prejudice – a rigid and irrational ___________ about an entire category of people.
6 Prejudice & Stereotypes Prejudgments that are positive or negative.They lead us to characterize all members of an entire ______ , most of whom we’ve never met.
7 Prejudice & Stereotypes Stereotypes – an ___________ description applied to every person in some category.Both the majority group and _________ hold stereotypical beliefs.
8 Measuring Prejudice Social Distance Scale Emory BogardusSocial Distance ScaleStudent opinions show a trend toward greater acceptancePeople see less ________ among various minorities9-11 attacks may have reduced social acceptance of Arabs & Muslims
10 RacismRacism – the belief that one racial category is innately ______ or ______ to another.Racial difference in mental abilities results from environment rather than ______ .
11 Theories of PrejudiceScapegoat Theory – prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves ___________ .A scapegoat – a person with little power whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles.
12 Theories of PrejudiceAuthoritarian Personality Theory – extreme prejudice is a personality trait in certain individualsThese personalities are common among those with _____ ________ and broken homes.
13 Theories of PrejudiceCulture Theory – extreme prejudice may be embedded in culture.Bogardus believed everyone in the United States expresses some ______ because we live in a culture of ______ .
14 Theories of PrejudiceConflict Theory – powerful people use prejudice to justify ________ others.Steele contends that minorities themselves cultivate a climate of race consciousness in order to win greater ______ .
15 DiscriminationDiscrimination – treating various categories of people ______ .Institutional prejudice and discrimination.Prejudice and discrimination often occur ______ .
16 Discrimination Prejudice and discrimination may combine in four ways Robert MertonPrejudice and discrimination may combine in four waysa) Active bigotryb) ______ ______c) Fair-weather liberalismd) All-weather liberalism
17 Prejudice: The Vicious Circle DiscriminationPrejudice: The Vicious CirclePrejudice and discrimination can form a vicious circle, perpetuating themselves.Figure (p. 314)
18 Sociological Theories Structural Functionalism - Prejudice is functional in that it creates in-group solidarity and out-group antagonism.Social Conflict theory - focuses on competition and the ability of some group to exploit others.Symbolic interactionism-examines how perception and labels produce prejudice.Dr. John Musalia, Western Kentucky U.
19 Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction Pluralism – a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have _____ _____ .Assimilation – the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category.Miscegenation – biological reproduction by people of ________ ______ categories.
20 Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction Segregation – the physical and social _________ of categories of people.Genocide – the systematic _____ of one category of people by another.
21 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S Native AmericansWhen the Europeans arrived in the ________ century, the Native Americans numbered in the millions.By 1900, they numbered a mere 250,000.
22 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S Native AmericansChristopher Columbus first called them “Indians” because he thought he landed in India.Not until 1924 were Native Americans entitled to ________ .
23 White Anglo-Saxon Protestants Race and Ethnicity in the U. SWhite Anglo-Saxon ProtestantsWASPs were not the first to inhabit the U. S., but they came to ________ this nation.Historically, WASP immigrants were highly skilled and motivated to achieve the ________ work ethic.
24 White Anglo-Saxon Protestants Race and Ethnicity in the U. SWhite Anglo-Saxon ProtestantsWASPs were never one single ______ .English remains the dominant language today, and Protestantism is the majority ______ .
25 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S African AmericansMost accounts mark the beginning of black history in the United States as ____.A Dutch trading ship brought twenty Africans to Jamestown, Virginia.
26 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S African AmericansSlavery was the foundation of the southern colonies’ plantation system.In 1865, the _________ Amendment outlawed slavery.
27 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S “An American Dilemma”A democratic society’s denial of basic rights and freedoms to an entire category of peopleTo resolve this, white people defined African Americans as innately ______ and undeserving of ______ .Gunnar Myrdal
28 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S Asian Americans_________ _______ diversity characterizes this category of people.In 2006, the total number of Asian Americans exceeded 13 million.
29 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S Asian AmericansThe largest category of Asian Americans is people of Chinese ancestry.More than ___- _____ of Asian Americans live in California.
30 Hispanic Americans/Latinos Race and Ethnicity in the U. SHispanic Americans/LatinosIn 2006, Hispanic Americans numbered more than 44 million.Few people in this category describe themselves as “______ ” or “______ .”
31 Hispanic Americans/Latinos Race and Ethnicity in the U. SHispanic Americans/LatinosHispanics are really a cluster of ______ ___________ , each of which identifies with a particular ancestral nation.Most of the Hispanic population lives in the _________ .
32 Race and Ethnicity in the U. S Arab Americans“Arab” (an ethnic category) is not the same as “Muslim” (a follower of Islam).Arab cultures differ from society to societyShare Arabic ________ and ________Arab Americans population is 1.5 million
33 White Ethnic Americans Race and Ethnicity in the U. SWhite Ethnic AmericansRecognizes ethnic heritage and social disadvantages of many white people___-_____ whitesImmigrants from Ireland, Poland, Germany, Italy, and other European countries___-____ of U.S. population
34 Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead. The United States has been and will remain a land of immigrants.Immigration has generated striking cultural diversity.Many new arrivals face much the same prejudice as those who came before them.