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Chapter 9 Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity

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1 Chapter 9 Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity

2 Minorities Minorities – a group of people w/ physical or cultural traits different from those of the dominant group Numbers alone do not make you a minority Ex. Women in the U.S. Key factors Has distinctive physical or cultural characteristics which can be used to separate if from the majority The minority is dominated by the majority Majority hold an unequal share of desired goods, services, and privleges Minority traits are often believed by the dominant majority to be inferior Members of the minority have a common sense of identity with strong group loyalty The majority determines who belongs to the minority through ascribed status

3 Race Race – people sharing certain inherited physical characteristics that are considered important w/in a society In sociology, social attitudes and characteristics that relate to race are more important than physical differences No scientific evidence that connects any racial characteristic w/ innate superiority or inferiority

4 Ethnicity Ethnicity – group identified by cultural, religious, or national characteristics Ex. Language, religion, values, beliefs, norms, and customs Ethnocentrism – main cause for negative attitudes toward ethnic minorities

5 Racial and Ethnic Relations
If minority groups are - accepted leads to assimilation, if rejected leads to conflict Assimilation – the blending or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society Anglo-conformity – the most prevalent pattern of assimilation in America Traditional American institutions are maintained Immigrants are accepted as long as they conform to the “accepted standards” of the society Others must either give up or suppress its own value

6 Racial and Ethnic Relations
Melting Pot – all ethnic and racial minorities voluntarily blend together Tossed salad – traditions and cultures exist side by side – many Sociologist prefer this idea Cultural Pluralism – desire of a group to maintain some sense of identity separate from the dominant group Accommodation – an extreme from of cultural pluralism. Occurs when a minority maintains its own culturally unique way of life

7 Patterns of Conflict Genocide – the systematic effort to destroy an entire population Most extreme version Ex. – Holocaust, Hutu vs. Tutsis, Serbians’ “Ethnic Cleansing” of Muslims in Bosnia and Kosovo Population transfer – a minority is forced either to move to a remote location or to leave entirely Ex. - Native Americans Subjugation – process by which a minority group is denied equal access to the benefits of society Most common pattern of conflict De jure segregation – denial of equal access based on the law Ex. – U.S. schools before Brown vs. Board of Ed. De facto segregation – denial of equal access based on everyday practice Ex - Neighbors not selling homes to certain races, businesses not promoting certain minorities


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