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The Roman Conquest of Greece. Rome: From Republic to Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roman Conquest of Greece. Rome: From Republic to Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roman Conquest of Greece

2 Rome: From Republic to Empire

3 Geography Italian Peninsula (Italy today) Location of Rome

4 The Alps and Mediterranean Sea protected Rome from invasion

5 Rome prospered due to trade on the Mediterranean Sea

6 Roman Gods Jupiter (Zeus): Chief god Juno (Hera): Goddess of marriage; wife of Zeus Apollo: God of light, the sun and music Diana (Artemis): Goddess of hunting and wild things Venus (Aphrodite): Goddess of love Minerva (Athena): Goddess of wisdom and war Based on Greek Gods

7 Roman Religion

8 Roman Republic Republic: rule by the people (re=by, public=people) Representative democracy: legislators (representatives) are elected by the citizens to represent their interests

9 Roman Citizens Paid taxes Men had the right to vote Men had to serve in the military

10 Patricians: Land-owners of noble Latin birth “ Patricia is a rich snob”

11 Plebeians: Majority of Romans- common people Artisans, shopkeepers, and small farmers

12 Slaves The property of their owners Were taken by conquest Had no freedom or rights

13 The Assemblies Patricians and plebeians met in the assemblies to vote for tribunes, magistrates (judges), and consuls. The assemblies were more democratic but less powerful than the senate.

14 The Senate The most powerful lawmaking body in Rome. 300 members were chosen (for life) from the Patrician class Later plebeians were allowed to join

15 Tribunes Were elected by the plebeians to protect the rights of ordinary people.

16 Consuls Two officials elected to command the army and direct the government Served for a one-year term. One consul could always veto (overrule) the other’s decisions.


18 Dictator In a times of crisis, a dictator would be given absolute power to command the army and make laws A dictator’s power lasted for only six months One whose word was law

19 Twelve Tables The laws of Rome. Established ideas seen in modern laws such as the principle of innocent until proven guilty. Laws carved on tablets and hung in the forum

20 Punic Wars 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage 264 to 146 BC

21 Carthage was a Trading empire located in North Africa (present-day Tunisia) that competed with Rome for control of trade on the Mediterranean Sea

22 Hannibal was the general of Carthage

23 Second Punic War His army crossed the Alps and invaded the Italian Peninsula

24 Hannibal was defeated when Rome attacked Carthage Rome destroyed Carthage Increased trade brought great wealth to Rome

25 Growth of Rome Following the Punic wars, Rome grew rapidly, taking control of the Mediterranean basin (including Greece and the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa, and Spain).

26 Punic Wars

27 Spread of Slavery Romans made slaves of captured peoples during the wars and conquests which followed By 100 BC slaves made up one-third of Rome’s population Roman Slave Collar

28 Expansion and Wealth Creates Problems The spread of slavery caused small farmers (former soldiers) to lose their land. The influx of wealth caused prices to rise (inflation)

29 Unemployment Landless former farmer-soldiers flocked into the into cities looking for jobs and joined the ranks of the restless urban poor (25% of the population) The gap between the rich and the poor widened. Loss of jobs

30 Decline of the Republic The end of democracy in Rome Civil wars erupted due to class conflicts and rivalries between politician-generals Another civil war erupted over the power of Julius Caesar

31 Roman Republic Grows

32 The First Triumvirate Three rulers who joined forces to take power from the senate and dominate Rome. Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey

33 Julius Caesar He conquered Gaul (France today) He had the support of the masses and the army

34 Caesar went to war with Pompey and won He returned to Rome with his army and forced the senate to make him dictator for life.

35 Julius Caesar Emerges as Dictator

36 Julius Caesar is Assassinated A group of senators stabbed Julius Caesar to death in the senate chamber

37 More Civil Wars After Julius Caesar’s death civil war erupted Octavian (Augustus) joined forces with Mark Anthony and Lepidus and together they took control of Rome for ten years.

38 Octavian vs. Marc Anthony Civil war erupted again between Octavian and Mark Anthony Octavian won. Octavian (Augustus) Anthony and Cleopatra

39 Julius Caesar is Assassinated Octavian Caesar Becomes Emperor

40 Augustus Caesar Octavian assumed absolute power and accepted the title “Augustus” Rome became an empire ruled by an emperor (no longer a republic or democracy).

41 The Pax Romana 200 years of peace and prosperity established by the rule of Augustus (pax = peace, Romana = Roman) The Roman Empire continued to expand and solidify

42 Roman Empire By the end of the second century, the Roman Empire stretched from Spain to Mesopotamia, and from North Africa to Great Britain.

43 Economic Impact Augustus established a uniform system of money helping to expand trade. It was safe to travel and trade on Roman roads.

44 Social Impact Augustus returned stability to the social classes Increased emphasis on the family

45 Political Impact Augustus created a civil service: He paid workers to manage the affairs of government (postal system, tax collection, etc.) He developed a uniform rule of law

46 Problems With Succession Succession – selection of the next emperor Because Rome had no written law for choosing a new emperor, crisis or civil war could occur when an emperor died.

47 Octavian - Augustus

48 Review





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