ROMAN RELIGION Borrowed Greek gods, with Roman names: Zeus (chief god) became Jupiter. Aphrodite (love) became Venus. Ares (war) became Mars. Poseidon (sea) became Neptune.
ROMAN FAMILY Patriarchal- father in charge: Made career decisions for sons. Arranged marriages. Could sell family members into slavery. Could kill them.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What impact did Rome have on history?
ROMAN EXPANSION Legions- Roman Army. Punic Wars- Rome v. Carthage (Africa) Hannibal- Carthage general, used elephants to cross the Alps to attack Rome. Defeat of Carthage led to Roman conquest of Northern Africa
TREATMENT OF CONQUERED NATIONS Indemnity- forced them to make payments. Forced losers into slavery. Could keep language, religion, gov.
SPARTACUS Led slave revolt against Romans, died on cross.
JULIUS CEASAR (King) Military victories: Against Gaul (France). Conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt.
REFORMS OF JULIUS CEASAR Social reforms (welfare) : job programs, reduced slavery, land for the poor, free grain. Created 365 day calendar, added extra day every fourth year.
DEATH OF JULIUS CEASAR Senators afraid of losing power stabbed him.
TRIUMVERATE- NEW LEADERS Octavian (Julius’ nephew) Marcus Lepidus Marc Antony
OCTAVIAN’S POWER PLAY Forced Marcus Lepidus into exile. Forced Marc Antony (and wife Cleopatra) to commit suicide. Octavian becomes dictator of Rome.