Presentation on theme: " Legend has it Rome was founded by two brothers, Romulus and Remus around 753 B.C. (B.C.E.) Geography played a large part of Rome’s success. Located."— Presentation transcript:
Legend has it Rome was founded by two brothers, Romulus and Remus around 753 B.C. (B.C.E.) Geography played a large part of Rome’s success. Located in modern Italy, Rome had a central location to conquer the Mediterranean. In 509 B.C. Roman’s drove out the Etruscan’s and established a Republic or government run by the people. They hoped this type of government would stop any one person from gaining to much power.
Roman Society was organized into three groups: The Patricians-landholding upper classes The Plebeians-the common people. This class was made up of artesian, merchants, farmers, soldiers and traders. Slaves The Senate was the governing body of Rome. It was comprised of 300 members from the Patrician class who served for life and made all of the laws for Rome.
The Twelve Tables The Plebeians first victory in the Republic. The government had the laws of Rome written down on twelve tables and posted in the Forum or marketplace. This is the first known instance of written law where all could see and protest decisions. Soon Plebeians gained the right to elect Tribunes or officials to protect the rights of Plebeians. The Tribunes could veto (reject) or block laws they saw as harmful to Plebeians. Slowly, Plebeians were elected to the Senate.
The Roman Army By 270 B.C. The Roman army had conquered most of the Italian peninsula and began spreading throughout the Mediterranean. Carthage-a City-State in Northern Africa that ruled North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. Rome had conquered Carthage by 146 B.C. While fighting Carthage in the West, Rome began pushing East and confronting Hellenistic rulers of Greece, Macedonia, and Egypt.
Economic & Social Effects Control of trade, conquests and trade routes brought enourmous wealth to Rome. The flood of slave labor, cheap grain and large farms hurt small Roman farmers. Citizen-Soliders worked without pay and provided their own weapons, yet they gained little from the Expansion of the Empire.
Julius Caesar- Military Commander and leader of an army of professional citizen-soldiers. Conquered Gaul (Modern France) and was ordered by Senate to disband his army. He refused and went on to sweep the Mediterranean and crushed the Roman army sent to stop him. Caesar was able to get the Senate to name him dictator. He was absolute ruler of Rome. Launched public works projects and gave away public land to gain support among the lower classes. Granted citizenship to people in the provinces. Was killed on the Ides of March (March 15) in 44 BC on the floor of the Senate where his enemies stabbed him to death.
Augustus Caesar-leader of Rome from 31 BC to 14 AD. Under his leadership, the Roman Republic ended and the Roman Empire began. Augustus created an efficient well-trained civil service to enforce laws. He left the Senate in place but laid the foundation for a stable, long lasting government.
Pax Romana- Roman Peace. Roman rule brought peace and order to the empire. Military protected borders & all weather roads. Ideas moved freely and spread throughout the Empire Roman Law Civil Law-applied only to Roman Citizens Law of Nations-based on the laws of nature this set of laws applied to both citizens and foreign subjects. Innocent until proven guilty Right to face your accuser & ability to offer a defense Guilt established “clearer than daylight” Judges allowed to interpret laws.