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Maya Kings and Cities Chapter 16 section 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Maya Kings and Cities Chapter 16 section 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Maya Kings and Cities Chapter 16 section 2

2 Key Terms Tikal Glyph Codes Popol Vuh

3 Maya Create City-States
Southern Mexico to Central America Highland and lowland regions Dry scrub to steamy jungles Mountains stretch from Mexico to El Salvador Olmec BC

4 Urban Centers 250-900 Classic Period of Maya civilization
Tikal-a major center in northern Guatemala Chichen Itza major city Each ruled by a god king Center of religious ceremonies and trade

5 Urban Centers Mayan cities featured
Giant pyramids, temples, palaces Elaborate stone carvings Tens of thousands lived in residential areas around the city Archaeologists have identified 50 major sites

6 Urban Centers Temple IV in Tikal stretched 212 feet into the sky
Ball court Stone sided field The game played religious and political significance Game maintains the sun and the moon and life giving rains

7 Agriculture and Trade Support Cities
City-States independent City-States linked by alliances and trade Cities exchanged Salt Flint Feathers Shells and honey Cacao (chocolate beans were currency)

8 Agriculture and Trade Support Cities
Traded craft goods Cotton Textiles and jade Mesoamerica had agriculture Maize Beans Squash

9 Agriculture and Trade Support Cities
Slash and burn agriculture Planted on raised beds above swamps and on hillside terraces

10 Kingdom Built on Dynasties
Successful farming led to wealth Social classes Noble priests and leading warriors Merchants with specialized knowledge and skilled artisans Bottom was the peasants

11 Religion Shapes Maya Life
Polytheistic Gods for weather Gods for crops Gods of good and evil Different directions different colors Each day was a living god whose behavior could be predicted System of calendars

12 Religious Practices Prayed, offerings of flowers, food , and incense
Pierced and cut their bodies Offered blood to nourish the gods Human sacrifice Usually captured enemies

13 Religious Practices Chichen Itza- threw captives down a deep sinkhole lake (cenote) Also gold and other offerings Believed human sacrifice pleased the gods Never reached extremes of other Mesoamericans

14 Math and Religion Calendar, mathematics, and astronomy
Time was a burden carried on the back of a god End of day, month or year one good laid it down and another picked it up

15 Math and Religion 260 day religious calendar (13, 20 day months)
Second 365 day calendar (18, 20 day months) Separate period of 5 days at the end Linked by mesh gears

16 Math and Religion Identified
Best time to plant crops Attack enemies Crown leaders Based on observation of the planets, sun and moon Solar year They were only of a day short

17 Math and Religion Used the concept of Zero
Used a shell symbol for zero Dots for numbers one to four A bar for five Base 20 system Used numbers for calendar and astronomical work

18 Written Language Preserves History
Mayan had must advanced writing system Glyphs-800 hieroglyphic symbols Some glyphs were words Some syllables Used writing to record historic events Carving into stone

19 Written Language Preserves History
Codex- glyphs recorded on bark paper Only three ancient books survived Popol Vuh- famous book recounts Highland Maya version of creation Calm and silence were the kings that ruled (pre-creation)

20 Mysterious Maya Decline
800’s Maya abandon their cities 700’s warfare broke out Trade disrupted, economic hardship Growing population Over farming, famine 1500’s Spanish arrive small weak city-states

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