Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Peoples and Empires in the Americas, 900- 1500 (pp. 391 - 411) Atahualpa."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16: Peoples and Empires in the Americas, 900- 1500 (pp. 391 - 411) Atahualpa
Diverse Societies of North America: Northwest Coast Indians Pueblo People: Hohokam (AZ), Anasazi (UT, AZ, CO, NM), Mound Builders: Mississippian, mounds can be found in Cahokia, IL Woodlands: Iroquois, Algonquian, Muskogean; Iroquois League was made up of Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cyuga, and the Seneca from upper NY
The Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations dominated regions of Central and South America from about 1200 B.C. through the 1500’s. These civilizations were advanced in technology, trade, language, and social organization. All three empires eventually fell to the Spanish conquistadors.
Mayan Civilization stretched from southern Mexico into Northern Central America including the Yucatan Peninsula.
The period from A. D. 250 – 900 is known as the Classical Period of Mayan Civilization City-states Ruled by a god-king Centers of trade and religious ceremonies
Mayan Cities Giant Pyramids Temples Palaces Stone Carvings Residential Areas
Agriculture and Trade City-states linked through trade & alliances Large variety of crops Slash-and-burn Planted raised beds Practiced hillside terracing Sufficient food and surplus for trade
Architecture Elaborate Pyramids Tikal Pyramids were the tallest structures in the Americas until 1903. Temples were constructed in every city Ball courts for Mayan games that had religious and political significance. They believed playing the game would maintain the cycle of the sun and moon and bring needed rain.
Mayan Religion Influenced every aspect of life Believed gods inhabited 13 layers of the sky and 9 layers of the underworld Gods represented various aspects of life Gods could be evil or good or both Worship consisted of prayer, offerings including blood offerings, and human sacrifice believing that human sacrifice was pleasing to the gods and kept the world in balance.
Mayan Contributions Calendar – 260 day religious calendar and a 365 day solar calendar – 365.2420 day Based on observation of the planets, sun, and moon. Both calendars could be cross referenced for specific days
Mayan Contributions Advanced system of writing 800 hieroglyphic symbols Some symbols stand for words, others represent syllables. Kept records of important historical events
Decline of Mayan Civilization 800s many Mayan cities were abandoned Invaders from Toltec moved into Mayan lands Infighting among the Mayan city-states Many fled to the jungles Trade was disrupted Over farming, food shortages, famine, and disease By the time the Spaniards arrived the civilization had been greatly weakened.
Aztec Empire Considered the greatest empire in Mesoamerica Powerful cities established as early as the 6 th century. Two powerful groups inhabited the region prior to the arrival of the Aztec.
Toltec Civilization Ruled the region for about 300 years Built pyramids and temples Extremely warlike Warlike people whose empire was based on conquest Worshipped war gods who demanded human sacrifice Trade spread all through Mesoamerica
Aztec Empire By 1200 Aztec occupied the Valley of Mexico Established the city of Tenochtitlan Formed a Triple Alliance with other strong cities Conquered and established and empire with a population of between 5 and 15 million
Religion of the Aztec Played a major role in Aztec society Many gods adopted from other Mesoamericans Public ceremonies designed to please and win the favor of the gods Believed that the god of the sun made it rise only if he was nourished with human blood Thousands of victims were sacrificed on the alter of the Great Temple where the priest carved out the beating heart Most of those sacrificed were captives of war
Aztec Empire Loose control over the empire Demanded tribute, those failing to pay were punished severely Empire ruled by military leaders, priests, and government officials, making the noble class Other social divisions included commoners and slaves. Merchants held a place of high position among the commoners Trade brought great wealth and power to the Aztec
Problems for the Aztec Montezuma II, Aztec emperor allowed the empire to weaken Demanded more tribute and taxes Resentment grew within the empire The Spanish explorers/conquistadors arrived to challenge and eventually take the land of the Aztec
Inca Empire First settled in the Cuzco Valley Believed the Inca ruler was a descended from the sun god They worshipped dead rulers who were preserved as mummies. The dead kept their wealth so each ruler had to acquire his own wealth.
Inca Government Good organization and administration Government bureaucracy to manage the empire Had a common language Built an extensive network of roads – promoted good communication No writing system but kept records through a system of knotted strings Developed an elaborate calendar system
Inca Religion Worshipped fewer gods that Aztec & Maya Focused on the spirits of nature, especially the sun, since the ruler was believed to have come from the sun god. Inca Fall After civil war and leadership disputes, the empire fell to Pizarro, a Spanish conquistador.