5 Aks 3636a explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec and Inca empires36b compare the culture of the Americas including government, economy, religion, social structure, technology and the arts of the Mayans, Aztecs and Incas
6 Essential questionWho were the Olmecs and what was their contribution to civilization in the Americas?
12 Olmec civilazation Mesoamerica’s first civilization builders What does “Mesoamerica” mean?Began carving out a society around 1200 BC in the jungles of southern MexicoThrived BCSan Lorenzo – the oldest site
16 The environment Hot and humid and covered with swamps and jungles Rainfall often caused rivers to floodLarge deposits of salt and tar and clay to make….?Wood and rubber from rain forestFlooded plains near rivers provided…?
17 Olmec society Earthen mounds, courtyards, and pyramids Planned ceremonial centersStone symbols – writing?Ritual ball gamesOlmec society
18 What do you think these monuments, mounds, and colossal heads tell us about their culture? May have represented particular Olmec rulersElite ruling classOlmec culture
19 Olmec religion Believed to have prayed to a variety of nature gods “The Jaguar Spirit”Half-human, half-jaguarPowerful rain god?Earth, fertility?
20 Olmec trade spanned north and south!!! Trade spread Olmec influenceTrade and commerce
21 Decline (by 400 BCE)What do you think happened to the Olmec?
22 Legacy/impact The Olmec left their mark Olmec art and construction affected future cultures like the MayaOlmec developed ceremonial centers, ritual ball games, and ruling classLater cultures in Mesoamerica adopted Olmec waysInfluenced Mayan writing systemOrigin of the Mayan calendar system
23 Summary 3 – things you learned 2 – things you want to find out more about1 – question you have
24 The MayansWho were the Mayan’s and what triggered their decline?
28 Southern Mexico into northern Central America Mayan CivilizationSouthern Mexico into northern Central AmericaIncludes dry scrub forest of the Yucatan PeninsulaAlso – dense, steamy junglesMaya took on Olmec influences and blended it with their local customs
29 Review What was the climate like for the Mayans? Where was their civilization located?
30 Mayan Civilization (cont) AD = “Classic Period” of Maya civilizationBuilt many cities (Tikal) in northern GuatemalaEach city-stateWhich means what for its government?Giant pyramids, temples, palaces, and elaborate stone carvingsTens of thousands of people surrounded the city center
31 ReviewHow was each Mayan location set-up in terms of government?
32 recreation Each Maya city featured a ball court What happened to the losers?Religious and political significanceMaya believed the playing of this game would maintain the cycles of the sun and moon and bring rainrecreation
34 Members of the losing team might be sacrificed by beheading. Exact rules and method of scoring are unknown.Inscriptions indicate that players could not use their hands or feet to move a solid rubber ball.Members of the losing team might be sacrificed by beheading.
35 Agriculture and tradeCity-states exchanged their local products and craft goodsNo unifying currency, cacao (CHOCOLATE) beans sometimes served as oneMaize, beans, and squash provided the basis for Maya life
36 King sat at the top and was regarded as a holy figure (hereditary) Noble class (priests and leading warriors)Merchants and specialized skillsPeasant majoritySocial structure
37 Religion What type of religion do you think they practiced? Polytheism – gods of corn, of rain, of war, etc.How did they worship?Prayed, made offerings of food, flowers, incenseOffered their blood to nourish the godsHuman sacrifice – of captured enemies
38 Math and religionMayans believed that time was a burden carried on the back of a godVery important to have an accurate calendar to know which god was in charge of the day260 day religious calendar365 day solar calendar
40 Written language 800 hieroglyphic symbols (glyphs) Carved glyphs into a bark-paper book known as a codex (only 3 survive)Burned by Spanish priests in 16th centuryPopul Vuh – the Maya’s version of the story of creation“Before the world was created, Calm and Silence were the great kings that ruled. Nothing existed, there was nothing”
42 Review Why was math and religion important to the Mayans? Describe their social structure.
43 decline In the 800s, the Maya suddenly abandoned many of their cities Invaders from the north moved into the lands.Reasons?Frequent warfare between kingdomsPopulation growth = needed more landdecline
44 Use your creativityIn one paragraph, write a short story about what you think happened to the Mayans?
53 The Aztecs Arrived in the Valley of Mexico ~1200 AD The god of sun and warfare told them to create a cityBased power on military conquestDemanded tribute from their neighbors (gold, jade, maize, cacao)
54 Aztec social structure EmperorNobles: Military, Priests, Government OfficialsMerchants, Artisans, and SoldiersMerchants formed a subgroup of eliteEnslaved PeopleAztec social structure
64 Essential QuestionWho were the Incas and what were some of their social innovations unique to Pre-Columbian culture in the Americas?
65 Descended from many different civilizations in the region Believed Incan ruler was descended from sun godLocated in the Andes Mountains of PeruFounded capital Cuzco around 1100 ADOrigins/Location
66 Incan government Governed by central bureaucracy? What is bureaucracy?Roads tied the empire togetherThe heart of the empire of the city of CuzcoAyllu – extended families that performed tasks to large for a regular familyA chief lead each group but they reported to the emperor
68 Welfare state Compared to modern socialism Mita – Annual labor tribute Work on roads, make goods, etcMessages travelled on road system (postal system)No writing systemKept detailed numerical records using quipuCared for entire populationWelfare state
69 religion Incan king was considered a descendent of sun god Worshipped sun, moon, rain, thunder godsYoung men and women would be drafted into a lifetime of serviceGreat cities – Machu PichuSun Temple (center), public buildings, central plaza
70 declineDuring the 1500’s the empire split between two sons after death of emperorCivil War ensured weakening the empireSpanish (Pizarro) arrived during the last days of the war
71 Summary 3 – Name 3 things you learned 2 – Things you want to find out more about1 – Question you have!It is good to have questions!