Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity

2 Minority, Race, and Ethnicity
Minority: group of people with physical or cultural traits different from those of the dominant group in society Five Key Features Has distinctive physical or cultural characteristics that can be used to separate it from the majority Dominated by the majority Minority traits are often believed by the majority to be inferior Members of the minority have a common sense of identity with strong group loyalty Majority determines who belongs to the minority group through ascribed status

3 Defining Race Race: people sharing certain inherited physical characteristics that are considered important within a society Examples: skin color, hair color, hair texture, facial features, head form, eye color, height Is there a scientific basis for race? No such thing as a “pure” race Most consider racial classifications arbitrary and misleading Sociologists see social attitudes and characteristics related to race more important than physical differences Are some physical characteristics superior? Only when they provide advantages for living in particular environments No scientific evidence that connects any racial characteristic with innate superiority or inferiority

4 Defining Ethnicity Ethnicity: cultural and national identity
Ethnic minority: subculture identified by its language, religion, values, beliefs, norms and customs Physical characteristics define racial minorities; Cultural differences define ethnic minorities Part of the larger culture, but also separate from the larger culture, either by choice or the majority’s doing Why are ethnic minorities seen as inferior? Ethnocentrism Majority loyalty leads to beliefs of superiority Judgments often expressed as prejudice and discrimination

5 Racial and Ethnic Relations
Minority groups are either accepted or rejected Assimilation: blending of minority groups into the dominant society Anglo-conformity: immigrants are accepted as long as they conform to accepted standards; give up or suppress own values Melting pot: all ethnic and racial minorities blend together Mixed salad: traditions and cultures exist side by side Cultural pluralism: desire of a group to maintain some sense of identity separate from the dominant group Latinos: bilingual education, forms, church services, tv channels Accommodation: minority learns to deal with the dominant culture when necessary but remains independent in language and culture Amish in Pennsylvania

6 Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice: widely held negative attitudes toward a group and its individual members Based on strong emotions and difficult to change Racism: extreme form of prejudice that assumes superiority of one group over others Discrimination is morally justified because of their superiority Discrimination: treating people differently based on ethnicity, race, religion, or culture Avoidance, denial, attacking Hate Crime: criminal act motivated by prejudice 2012 – 5,796 hate crimes reported Stereotype: a distorted, exaggerated, or oversimplified image applied to a category of people Sometimes used to justify unethical behavior against a group

7 Institutional Discrimination
Institutionalized Discrimination: unfair practices that grow out of common behaviors and attitudes that are a part of the structure of society Grows out of traditional, accepted behaviors

8 Is institutional discrimination really an issue in the United States?
Yes! In 2003, two sociologists performed a study in which they sent 5,000 fake resumes to 1,300 employers. Half the resumes contained “stereotypically black names” and the other half contained “stereotypically white names”. The results: For white names, callbacks averaged 1/10 For black names, callbacks averaged 1/15 A white name was equivalent to 8 years more work experience Conclusion: Racial discrimination is still a major feature of the labor market

9 Residential Segregation
Physical separation of cultural groups based on residence and housing Sorts population groups into various neighborhoods and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level Ensures that members of the different groups will interact less over time, which makes members of those groups less likely to be sympathetic towards members of other groups. Makes it easier for members of all groups to stereotype other groups, and thus allows for the creation of a stronger distinction between the us and a them.

10 Chicago

11 Memphis

12 Washington D.C.

13 Portland

14 Los Angeles: The city's Hispanic population lives predominantly in the city's poorer areas

15 Newark

16 Salt Lake City

17 New York City

18 Philadelphia

19 Detroit

20 Ft. Lauderdale

21 Buffalo

22 Patterns of Conflict Genocide: systematic effort to destroy a population Holocaust, Rape of Nanking, Serbia’s ethnic cleansing, Rwanda Population Transfer: minority is forced either to move to a remote location or leave the territory entirely Native Americans Subjugation: minority is denied equal access to the benefits of society; most common De jure segregation: by law; racial segregation of schools De facto segregation: everyday practice; neighborhoods and jobs

23 Theoretical Perspectives
Functionalists Focus on dysfunctions Costs of racial inequality are extremely high Can foster positive self-concepts for those who feel superior Conflict Theorists Majority uses prejudice and discrimination as weapons Increases control over property, goods, etc… Different minorities see each other as competition Symbolic Interactionists We learn to be prejudiced from our family, peers, media Language can reflect prejudices Self-fulfilling Prophecy: expectation that leads to behavior that causes the expectation to become reality

24 How Does RS Happen? Redlining
Redlining: the practice of discrimination in mortgage lending Banks mark certain neighborhoods red on appraisal maps Thereby making it next to impossible to get a mortgage for a home

25 How Does RS Happen? Steering, White Flight, Gentrification
Steering: agents do not show certain properties on the market to qualified minority home seekers steer them to neighborhoods that have a similar racial make-up as the home seeker Keep white neighborhoods white White Flight: white families move out of the neighborhood a threshold is reached where a neighborhood becomes approximately twenty-percent or more African-American, white flight takes place Gentrification: urban renewal; higher income newcomers displacing lower income residents from up-and-coming urban neighborhoods

Download ppt "Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google