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Exterior Walls (Wood).

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Presentation on theme: "Exterior Walls (Wood)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exterior Walls (Wood)

2 Framing Techniques in Light Frame Construction
General Terms & Methodology Platform Framing Balloon Framing Post & Beam

3 Forces on Exterior Wall Construction
Wall had their own dead load Walls support vertical loads (LL + DL) from roof ceiling floors Must also resist lateral forces due to Wind Earthquake (seismic)

4 Wind--Horizontal/Lateral Load
Palm tree pierced by plywood missile, Hurricane Andrew Wind causes both horizontal & vertical movement with vertical forces called uplift Use of wind speed map to determine wind speed (70 to 110 miles per hour)

5 Wind Forces Horizontal forces are treated like seismic
Sucking force Lifting Horizontal forces are treated like seismic Vertical forces are called uplift Wind blowing across the structure creates a negative pressure (sucking force) Wind blowing thru an opening increases inside pressure (lifting force)

6 Earthquakes Shock waves cause lateral and vertical motion in a building Usual design, for vertical forces, will take care of the vertical seismic forces Major factors effecting seismic forces: The type of structure (material its made of) Nature of soil under the building Building are not designed to be earthquake-proof, but to be earthquake resistant

7 Exposed Earthquake Module
Connections called “ductile” are designed to give the building the ability to move, bend or stretch without snap and breaking apart during earthquakes

8 Typical Wall Construction
One and two story framing 2” x 16” O.C. Occasionally 2” x 24” O.C. Three story framing(load bearing walls) lower floor = 2” x 16” O.C. other floors = 2” x 16” O.C.

9 Window Framing Terms Header Header Jack Cripple Studs Double Plate
Rough Sill Trimmer Window Framing Terms Header supports structure above windows Header Jack supports header Cripple Studs Double Plate Rough Sill Trimmer additional stud to trim out window

10 Platform Framing Also called Western Framing Subfloor is Platform
Rafter or Truss Subfloor is Platform Also called Western Framing Blocking Double Plate Sway Bracing (cornerbracing) Girder Ledger Floor Joist Sill (Mud Sill) Foundation Sheathing

11 Balloon Framing Studs extend from sill to roof line (full length)
Also called Eastern Framing Terms similar to Platform Framing

12 Balloon Framing Used primarily for 2 story construction
Less chance of shrinkage or movement recommended for masonry veneer & stucco 2nd floor supported by wall with let-in 1x4 called a ribbon Less overall material Longer members usually more costly Firestop blocking required

13 Balloon Framing Terms Ribbon Firestop

14 Framing Construction at Corners
3 full studs good with super insulated buildings 3 full studs and blocking 3 full studs and 1/2” shim

15 Post & Beam Relatively new and less common in residential construction
T&G planks 2x6 or 2x8 Relatively new and less common in residential construction Used in heavy timber const for years post Beam and Post typically 4’-8’ OC

16 Tongue & Groove Planking
Used for Roof or Floor when structure is space 24” or more O.C.

17 Shear Wall Design Resistance to lateral forces resulting from earthquakes or wind Connections: 1 sheathing to joist 2 joist to top wall 3 edge nailing 4 tie-down straps 5 anchor/shear bolts

18 Detailing areas of Shear Walls
Diaphragm transfer Detailing areas of Shear Walls

19 Exterior Finishes Siding Stucco
Wood Siding Metal Siding Steel Aluminum Vinyl Siding Stucco Exterior Finish System--a nylon mesh & plaster over insulation board

20 Wood Siding Various sizes and Shapes Solid wood T1-11 (plywood)
4’x8’ sheets Masonnite Lap board 8-12” x 16’

21 Steel & Vinyl Siding Higher in Cost Lower in Maintenance Long lasting
no painting Long lasting Concerns when using this siding expansion denting cracking rusting

22 Cement Stucco } 7/8” sheathing vs. open frame Least expensive
building paper wire fabric lath furring nails drip screed 3 coats of plaster finish } 7/8” brown scratch

23 Interior Finishes Plaster & Lath Wood Paneling Dry wall

24 Plaster & Lath Old technique - not in common use today
3/8” - 1/2” thick lath 1/2” coat plaster uses a ground board at edges

25 Wood Paneling 4’ x 8’ sheet panels vertical/horizontal/angle pieces
solid boards wide range of wood types and colors

26 Drywall Commonly called sheet rock, gypsum board (GB), or plaster board typically 1/2” on wall, 5/8” on ceiling Nail directly to studs, nails commonly ” OC Tape - 3 coats/ texture Green/blue board or cement board for bathrooms

27 Assignment Sheet A-4 Dimension the enlarged entry plan
Add restrooms to match A-1 & A-2 Reference door and window (A-1 & A-2) Hatch or poche’ as needed Using elevation 1/A-4 create elevations for A/A-4 and B/A-4

28 Drawing Assignment Wall Section
5/8”dia x 32” 8” Min from backfill to top FDN 4” concrete slab w/ 6x6 10/10 wwf or wwm (wire welded fabric or mess) Blocking 6-8”compact fill 95% density foundation wall 8” with normal footing size (w x 2w) 30” frost depth Foundation insulation

29 Drawing Assignment Wall Section Cont.
2”x4” wood studs Treated wood plate Found. (2) #5 bars top and bottom and (1) 18” o.c. vertical 12”x18” cont. conc. footing w/ (2) #4 bars x cont. #4 18” o.c. (50% 2’-6” & 50% 1’-6”) T&G plywood subfloor (second level)

30 Wall Section Drawing Cont.
Slope 3:12 5/8” GB inside wall Beam 8’-0” Roof beam 3x10 3/4” CDX plywood sheathing 3/4” T1-11 siding (brick, stucco, etc.) Overhang 18” 2x2 starter board 1-1/2” from edge

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