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Exterior Walls- Framing & Structural Components

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Presentation on theme: "Exterior Walls- Framing & Structural Components"— Presentation transcript:

1 Exterior Walls- Framing & Structural Components

2 Framing/Construction Techniques
General Terms & Methodology Platform Framing Balloon Framing Energy-Efficient Framing Post & Beam(Timber) Steel Framing Concrete Masonry Construction Floor Framing Terms Wall Framing Terms Exterior Finishes

3 General Exterior Wall Construction
Walls support vertical loads from roof ceiling floors Must also resist later forces due to wind earthquakes

4 Typical Wall Construction
One and two story framing Generally walls are 2” x 16” O.C. Occasionally 2” x 16”, 19.2” and 24” O.C. associated with cold climates Three story framing(load bearing walls) lower floor = 2” x 16” O.C. other floors = 2” x 16” O.C.

5 Platform Framing 1. Also called Western Framing 2. Most common today
Ceiling Joist Platform Framing Rafter or Truss Subfloor 1. Also called Western Framing 2. Most common today 3. Platform provide area to build walls Blocking Dbl Plate Floor Joist “Platform Framing” Sway Bracing (corner bracing) Girder Ledger Floor Joist Sill Foundation Sheathing

6 Balloon Framing 1. Studs extend from sill to roof line 2. Also called
Eastern Framing 3. Terms similar to Platform Framing. 4. Additional Terms: Ribbon Firestop Balloon Framing Two story length studs

7 Balloon Framing Terms Ribbon Firestop

8 Balloon Framing Used primarily for 2 story construction
Less chance of shrinkage or movement recommended for masonry veneer & stucco 2nd floor supported by wall with let-in 1x4 called a ribbon Less overall material Longer members usually more costly Firestop blocking and ribbons required

9 Framing Construction at Corners
3 full studs good with super insulated buildings 3 full studs and blocking 3 full studs and 1/2” shim Two studs and dry wall clips (see class sample)

10 Energy-Efficient Framing
Advanced framing techniques (AFT) Altering traditional framing methods see text for examples Eliminate nonstructural wood with insulation (Wood = R1/inch, Insulation = R3.5 to R8.3/inch) insulation at corners, insulation at exterior wall behind partition intersections, and insulated headers Stud spacing (24” OC) One level height limitation set by code Structural insulated panels (SIP)

11 Post & Beam(Timber) beam T&G planks 2x6 or 2x8
1. Relatively new and less common in residential construction 2. Larger members placed further apart 3. Used in heavy timber construction for years post Beam and Post typically 8’ OC

12 Post &Beam Construction
Provides vaulted (sloped) ceilings and a more open feeling in the space T

13 Post and Beam Framing using Tongue & Groove Planking
Used for Roof or Floor when structure is space 24” or more O.C.

14 Steel Framing Alternate method of framing
lower energy cost higher strength better insurance rates and considerations Similar to platform framing in construction steel studs base/plates steel trusses

15 Concrete Masonry Construction
Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) durable, economical material, excellent structural values, poor insulation values Classifications hollow load bearing (ASTM C 90) solid load-bearing nonload-bearing (solid or hollow) Solid Masonry = 75% solid material in cross-section positions: solider, rowlock, sailor, stretcher, header shiner

16 Concrete Masonry Shapes

17 Solid Masonry (Brick) Positions

18 Structural Components
Floor Systems conventional framing (Stick Built) terminology Floor Bracing Mid span End bracing Framed Wall Construction bearing walls nonbearing walls exterior finishes

19 Conventional Floor Framing
Conventional (Stick) framing basic terms mud sill sole plate(sill) floor joist rim joist anchor bolt Floor Joist Solid TJI Open web

20 Floor Bracing End Bracing Rim Joist Blocking

21 Floor Bracing Bracing at midspan solid blocking cross blocking wood

22 Framed Wall Construction
Definition: Bearing walls Definition: Nonbearing walls

23 Window/Door Framing Terms
Double Plate Window/Door Framing Terms Cripple Stud or Jack Stud Header Header supports structure above windows Header Jack (trimmer) supports header Cripple Studs (jack stud) Double Plate Rough Sill(sub sill) King stud additional stud to trim out window Header Jack or Trimmer

24 Framed Wall Construction Shear Wall Design
Resistance to lateral forces resulting from earthquakes or wind Connections: 1 sheathing to joist 2 joist to top wall 3 edge nailing 4 tie-down straps 5 anchor/shear bolts

25 Exterior Finishes Wood Siding Cement Board Siding Steel Siding
Vinyl Siding Stucco Exterior Insulation Finish System (EIFS)

26 Wood Siding Various sizes and Shapes Solid wood T1-11(plywood)
4’x8’ sheets Masonnite Lapboard 8-12” x 16’

27 Cement Board Siding Has texture and look of wood siding but is more weather resistant.

28 Steel & Vinyl Siding Higher in Cost and Lower in Maintenance
no painting A variety of wood textures and patterns Longer lasting than wood but some Concerns: expansion denting cracking rusting

29 Cement Stucco Least expensive sheathing vs. open frame building paper
wire fabric lath furring nails drip screed 3 coats of plaster finish brown scratch

30 Exterior Insulated Finish System (EIFS)

31 Roof Construction Basic terms: slope/pitch--incline of roof
roof member terms--structure of roof eave/cornice--detail showing wall to roof const fascia--visible member attached to end of rafters ridge--top of roof sheathing--material covering the top of rafters rafter/ceiling joist--structure framing of roof soffit--underneath side of roof overhang vents--in soffit, allows air circulation in attic

32 Eave and Cornice Detail Terms

33 Slope vs. Pitch Slope = Rise/Run Pitch = Rise/Span
Text book error (noted as pitch symbol) Slope = Rise/Run expressed as a ratio always a base of 12 placed on dwg. Slope symbol 12 4 Pitch = Rise/Span expressed as fraction reduce to smallest fraction not placed on drawing, helpful to carpenter

34 Roof Member Terminology

35 Metal Framing Connectors
Keeps structural members from separating

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