4 -ed has three sounds. If a base word ends in the sound /d/ or /t/, adding -ed makes another syllable that says /ed/ and is pronounced as an extra syllable. For example: faintED
5 Some regular past tense words that say /ed/ actedfrostedaddedshoutedendedavoidedpaintedstartedcrowdedcountedfloatedpointedlandedsoundedprinted
6 -ed says /d/If the base word ends in a voiced consonant sound, the ending ed says /d/ (For example: arrive/arrived; waved is pronounced /wayvd/)The -ed ending is not pronounced as an extra syllable.
7 Some regular past tense words that say /d/ calledcrawledyelleddestroyedstayedscreamedrainedallowedspelledfrownedlearnedenjoyedfailedlistened
8 -ed says /t/If the base word ends in an unvoiced consonant sound, the ending -ed says /t/ (jumped). Unvoiced consonant sounds are c, ch, f, gh, k, ks, p, s, sh, t...etc– the –ed sound sounds like /t/ and is not pronounced as an extra syllable. (For example: forced – pronounced /forst/)
9 Some regular past tense words that say /t/ askedwishedhelpedwalkedpackedmixedlaughedcrackedpasseddressedforcedfixedlickedbumpedthankedjumped
11 Add –ed to a regular verb The most common spelling characteristicof the regular past tense of a verb is that-ed is added to the base form of the verb:for example, opened, knocked, stayed, etc.(Examples of irregular verbs are go, went, gone. We will learn these later).
12 Rule 1: Words ending with a C-V-C Pattern One-syllable words:If the word ends in a CVC pattern, it gets a double consonant + ED.Examples:rub – rubbedstop - stoppedTwo-syllable words:If the stress is on the first syllable, the word only gets one consonant + ED. Examples:visit – visitedopen – openedIf the stress is on the second syllable, the word gets a double consonant + ED. Examples:refer – referredadmit - admitted*note: Words ending in w,x,y,z do not follow this rule, simply add ED, Examples: snow > snowed
13 Rule 2: Words ending in E If the word ends in E, simply add D Examples:smile – smiledfine - fined
14 Rule 3: Words ending in YConsonant + YIf the word ends in Y, and has a consonant before it, change the y to i and add ed. Examples:study – studiedmarry - marriedVowel + YIf the word ends in Y, and has a vowel before it, simply add ED. Examples:play – playedstay - stayed
15 Rule 4: Other words... Words ending in two vowels + a consonant If the word ends in two vowels + a consonant, simply add ED. Examples:dream -dreamedrain - rainedWords ending in a double consonant: If the word ends in a double consonant, simply add ED. Examples:park -parkedearn- earned