2 Present PerfectWe use the Present Perfect for actions in the past which have a connection to the present. The time when these actions happened is not important.
3 We use the Present Perfect for recently completed actions.
4 We use the Present Perfect for actions beginning in the past and still continuing.
5 Present Perfect - UseIt is a combination of past and present. An actions in the past has something to do with the present.
6 1) Result of an action in the past is important in the present (It is not important when this action happened. When we use a specific time in the past - e.g. yesterday - then we use the Simple Past.)I have cleaned my room. (It is clean now.)
7 Has Peggy ever been to Tokyo? (Has Peggy been there or not?)
8 2) Recently completed actions He has just played handball. (It is over now.)
9 Actions beginning in the past and still continuing - mostly with since (point of time) or for (period of time)We have lived in Canada since (We still live there.)
10 4) together with lately, recently, yet I have been to London recently. (no specific point of time)
11 He has not written the e-mail yet. (He has not done it.)
12 PRESENT PERFECT FORMThe present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb.
13 The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs .
14 AffirmativeSubject to have past participleShe has visited
15 Subject to have + not past participle She hasn't visited
16 Interrogativeto have subject past participleHas she visited..?
17 Interrogative negative to have + not subject past participleHasn't she visited...?
18 Example: to walk, present perfect AffirmativeI have walkedYou have walkedHe, she, it has walkedWe have walkedThey have walked
22 Sometimes the are exceptions in spelling when adding -ed. 1) consonant after a short, stressed vowel at the end of the wordstop – stopped swap – swapped
23 We do not double the consonant if it is not stressed: benefit - benefited (Here we stress the first 'e', not the 'i'.)In Britsh English we double one -l at the end of the word: travel - travelled
24 2) one -e at the end of the word Leave out the -e. Add -d.love – lovedsave – saved
25 3) verbs ending in –yVerbs ending in 'y' preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u):Add -ed.play - playedChange 'y' to 'i' after a consonant.Then add -ed. worry - worried
26 You have to know all forms of the irregular verbs very well You have to know all forms of the irregular verbs very well. For the Present Perfect you need the form of the verb which can be found in the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs.go - went - gone
27 Special verbs in the Present Perfect 1) have as a full verbaffirmative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have had a book.he, she, it:He has had a book.
28 negative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have not had a book.he, she, it:He has not had a book.
29 questionI, we, you, they:Have I had a book?he, she, it:Has he had a book?
30 2) be as a full verbaffirmative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have been to Britain.he, she, it:He has been to Britain.
31 negative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have not been to Britain.he, she, it:He has not been to Britain.
32 questionI, we, you, they:Have I been to Britain?he, she, it:Has he been to Britain?
33 3) do as a full verbaffirmative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have done an exercise.he, she, it:He has done an exercise.
34 negative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have not done an exercise.he, she, it:He has not done an exercise.
35 questionI, we, you, they:Have I done an exercise?he, she, it:Has he done an exercise?
36 Long forms and short forms in the Present Perfect We often use short forms of the auxiliaries. The Present Perfect is formed with the auxiliary have. So short forms are used frequently with the Present Perfect.
37 Affirmative long formI, we, you, they:I have gonehe, she, it:he has gone
38 Affirmative short form I, we, you, they:I've gonehe, she, it:he's gone
39 negative (have not)long form I, we, you, they:I have not gonehe, she, it:he has not gone
40 short formI, we, you, they:I haven't gone or I've not gonehe, she, it:he hasn't gone or he's not gone