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WAVES Unit C Resource _

Big Ideas 1.1 Waves Transfer energy 1.2 Waves have measurable properties 1.3 Waves behave in predictable ways.

The Nature of Waves What is a wave? A wave is a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space

Waves transfer energy not matter.
The water waves below are carrying energy but are not moving. Waves can only exist as they have energy to carry.

*Mechanical waves are waves which require a medium.
A medium is a form of matter through which the wave travels (such as water, air, glass, etc.) *Waves such as light, x-rays, and other forms of radiation do not require a medium.

What are the two kinds of mechanical waves?
Transverse Longitudinal

Transverse Waves In a transverse wave the matter in the wave moves up and down at a right angle to the direction of the wave Transverse waves— The motion of particles is at 900 angles Example – rope, water waves, light waves

Example of a transverse wave:

Water waves transfer energy through matter (mechanical waves):
Particles of water move around in circles. The farther below the surface, the smaller the circle.

Also called compression waves
Longitudinal Waves In a longitudinal wave the matter in the wave moves back and forth, parallel to the direction of the wave. Observe the red line Also called compression waves

You can see the result of vibrations that create motion in the water to produce waves on the beach.
As the wave slows, its crest and trough come closer together. The top of the wave is not slowed by friction and moves faster than the bottom.

Longitudinal vs. Transverse Waves
Sound 05/02/2006 Longitudinal vs. Transverse Waves Sound is a longitudinal wave, meaning that the motion of particles is along the same direction of the force Lecture 10

What are earthquake waves (seismic waves)?
An energy wave that --vibrates through the earth’s crust as the crust bends or breaks. --seismic waves produce both transverse and longitudinal waves. --Some travel through the earth and some travel across the earth’s surface.

Anatomy of a Seismic Wave
When the Earth’s crust breaks, energy that is released transmits outward, causing an earthquake. Some waves travel through the earth and some travel across the earth’s surface.

longitudinal, sound waves and seismic waves have in common?
What do transverse, longitudinal, sound waves and seismic waves have in common? They all must travel through a MEDIUM…..any matter (air, water, ground) Electromagnetic waves DO NOT require a medium.

Examples of electromagnetic waves
Radio waves Microwaves infrared waves ultraviolet light (UV light from sun) X-rays gamma-rays

What are the parts of a transverse wave?
The crest is the highest point on a transverse wave. The trough is the lowest point on a transverse wave. The rest position or fixed position of the wave is called the node or nodal line.

What is a wavelength? The wavelength is the distance from one crest to another crest or the distance from one trough to another trough.

Parts of a wave Wave height Wavelength Crest Crest Trough

Longitudinal (Compressional) wave
On a longitudinal wave the area squeezed together is called the compression. The areas spread out are called the rarefaction.

Longitudinal (compressional) wave
The wavelength is the distance from the center of one compression to the center of the next compression.

Important Wave Terms Wavelength (λ) is a measure of distance, so the units for wavelength are always distance units, such as meters, etc Frequency (f) is the number of waves that pass through a point in one second. The unit for frequency is waves per second or Hertz (Hz). One Hz = One wave per second The amplitude of a wave is directly related to the energy of a wave

How are Frequency and Wavelength Related?
The smaller the wavelength, the more times it will pass through a point in one second. The larger the wavelength, the fewer times it will pass through a point in one second. Period is the time it takes for one full wavelength to pass a certain point.

The amplitude in a longitudinal wave depends on how dense the medium is
at each compression High amplitude Low amplitude A B .

What is amplitude? The amplitude of a transverse wave is determined by the height of the crest or depth of the trough.

The Behavior of Waves What is reflection? When a wave bounces off an object and changes direction – this is reflection.

What is refraction? Refraction is the bending of a wave as it passes from one medium to another. A wave travels at different speeds in different things. When a wave traveling a certain speed moves into another medium, it will either increase in speed or decrease in speed, resulting in a change in direction. The pencil looks like it is broken at the surface of the water because of Refraction

If you are in a swimming pool under water and
look up and saw a ball, Is the ball really directly above you?

Refraction

What is diffraction? Diffraction occurs when an object (island) causes a wave to change direction and bend around it.

Diffraction also occurs when passing through a small opening
Diffraction also occurs when passing through a small opening. They diffract and spread out as they pass through the hole.

What is wave interference?
Waves interfere in one of two ways: Constructive Interference and Destructive Interference.

Warm up Name, Date - 2/20/1011 How many centimeters (cm) are on the graph? Each green mark on the horizontal line represents a cm. 2. How many cm did the wave travel? 3. How many wavelengths are on the graph?

The End

Examples of electromagnetic waves
Radio waves Microwaves infrared waves ultraviolet light (UV light from sun) X-rays gamma-rays