2 What are Waves?A wave is a disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space.
3 Types of Waves There are two types of waves: Mechanical: Require a medium (matter through which a wave travels)Examples Include:Ocean waves, medium = waterSound waves, medium = airSeismic Waves (Earthquake), medium = earth
4 Types of WavesElectromagnetic: caused by a disturbance in electric and magnetic fields and do not require a medium.Examples include:
5 Wave MovementA wave front is the front of a wave that is transferring energy.In a single system all of the wave fronts have the same amount of energy, but as the wave front spreads out, so does the energy.
6 Wave Movement Waves can move in two basic ways: Transverse Motion: particles of the medium vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the wave travels.Example: light waveLongitudinal (Compressional) Motion: particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction the wave travels.Example: sound wave
7 Parts of a WaveYou will be responsible for identifying parts of a wave on both a transverse and longitudinal wave. Complete the descriptions and label the following on your note outline:
8 Parts of a WaveTransverse Wave: The top of the wave is called a crest (peak); the bottom of the wave is called the trough.Longitudinal Wave: The point of maximum compression is called a compression; The point of least amount of compression is called a rarefaction.CrestTroughCompressionRarefaction
9 Parts of a Wave Wavelength (λ) is the total length of 1 wave. In transverse waves it’s typically measured from crest to crest or trough to trough.In longitudinal waves it’s measured from compression to compression or rarefaction to rarefaction.The shorter the wavelength, the more energy the wave is carrying.1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ
10 Parts of a WaveAmplitude can be measured on a transverse wave. It height from the resting point to the crest or the resting point to the trough.The larger the amplitude, the more energy the wave is carrying.AmplitudeAmplitude
11 Wave MeasurementsA period (T) is the time it takes for one full wavelength of wave to pass a certain point.A period is a measurement of time, so its SI unit is seconds (s).
12 Wave MeasurementsThe frequency (f) of a wave is the number of full wavelengths that pass a given point per second.The SI unit for measuring frequency is Hertz (Hz).
13 Wave MeasurementsThe frequency (f) of a wave is the number of full wavelengths that pass a given point per second.The SI unit for measuring frequency is Hertz (Hz).Frequency is the inverse of periodf = 1 / T
14 wave speed (m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m) Wave MeasurementsWave speed (v) is the speed at which a wave passes through a medium and is measured using the following equation:wave speed (m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m)v = f x λ
15 Wave MeasurementsA wave along a guitar string has a frequency of 440 Hz and a wavelength of 1.5 m. What is the speed of the wave?v =? m/sf =440 Hzλ =1.5 mv = f * λvf * λv = 440 Hz x 1.5 mv = 660 m/s
16 Wave MeasurementsThe speed of sound in air is about 340 m/s. What is the wavelength of sound waves produced by guitar strings vibrating at a frequency of 440 Hz?v =340 m/sf =440 Hzλ =? mλ = v / fvf * λλ = 340 m/s / 440 Hzλ = 0.77 m
17 Wave MeasurementsThe speed of light is 3 x 108 m/s. What is the frequency of microwaves with a wavelength of 0.01 m?v =3 x 108 m/s300,000,000 m/sf =? Hzλ =0.01 mf = v / λvf * λf = 300,000,000 m/s / 0.01 mf = 30,000,000,000 Hz
18 Wave BehaviorA reflection is the bouncing back of a wave as it meets a surface or a boundary.
19 Wave BehaviorHow a wave reflects depends upon the surface that it bounces off of.Example: When sending pulses down a rope with a free end, the wave comes back normal.Example: When sending pulses down a rope with a fixed end, the wave comes back inverted.FreeFixed
20 Wave BehaviorDiffraction is the bending of a wave as it passes an edge or an opening.
21 Wave BehaviorRefraction is the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another.
22 Wave BehaviorInterference occurs when the combination of two or more waves exist in the same place at the same time.Constructive interference = bigger wave.Destructive interference = smaller wave.
23 Wave BehaviorStanding waves are caused by two identical waves going in opposite directions.Series of constructive and destructive interferences.They have regions of no vibration (nodes) and regions of maximum vibration (antinodes).
24 Wave BehaviorThe frequency of a wave can change when the source of the wave or the observer is moving. This is called the Doppler Effect.