3 What is motivation?Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal.
4 Components of motivation Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a particular class.Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist. An example of persistence would be taking medicine in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy, and resources.Intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student might pass without much effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions, and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class. The first student lacks intensity, while the second pursues his educational goals with greater intensity.
5 MotiveA motive is an inner state that energizes, actuates, activates or moves (Hence motivation), that directs or channels the behavior towards the goals.
6 Types of motives Primary motives General motives The competence motive Secondary motivesPower motiveThe achievement motiveThe affiliation motive
8 Instinct theoryInstincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951).For example a woman builds different kinds of houses, the bird builds only one kind of nest.
9 Drive-Reduction Theory When the instinct theory of motivation failed to explain most human motivation, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need (Hull)Drive reduction behaviors e.g eating, drinking etcDrive e.g hunger, thirstNeede.g food, water etc
10 Optimum ArousalHuman motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive.
11 Herzberg's two-factor theory Fredrick Herzberg two-factor theory concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction (motivators), while others (hygiene factors), if absent, lead to dissatisfaction but are not related to satisfaction. The name hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not improve health, but absence can cause health deterioration.The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime. Some claimed motivating factors (satisfiers) were: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Some hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) were: company policy, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security, and personal life.
12 Hierarchy of NeedsAbraham Maslow in 1970 suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition.
16 Intrinsic motivationThe act of being motivated by internal factors to perform certain actions and behavior is called Intrinsic Motivation.There is neither pressure nor any sort of reward for the actions you perform due to intrinsic motivation.It can take the form of motivation by the work itself when individuals feel that their work is important, interesting and challenging and provides them with a reasonable degree of autonomy (freedom to act), opportunities to achieve and advance, and scope to use and develop their skills and abilities.
17 Extrinsic motivationIn this type of motivation, the motives originate from outside the human body. The driving force exists outside the human body that stimulates the individual to perform certain actions. Though these motives are external to human body but they have rewarding or punishing impact on the individual.
18 Examples of extrinsic motives IncentivesBonusesAllowancesPromotionRewards and punishmentsDistinction certificatesAppreciation certificatesPrizes