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Unit 3: Management Challenges

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1 Unit 3: Management Challenges
What is Motivation Unit 3: Management Challenges

2 Personality Personality is an individual's behavioural and emotional characteristics. It is what makes an individual unique A personality trait is a habitual pattern of behaviour, thought, and emotion In every workplace you will find individuals with different personalities working together Managers must understand both their own personalities and the personalities of their employees to maximize success

3 Motivation Motivation is the creation of stimuli, incentives, and working environments which enable people to perform to the best of their ability in pursuit of organizational success Motivation is commonly viewed as the magic driver that enables managers to get others to achieve their targets

4 Motivation Motivation can be divided into two categories: extrinsic and intrinsic Extrinsic motivation happens when you are motivated by external factors such as tangible rewards e.g. money or pressures Intrinsic motivation comes from the pleasure you get from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in working on a task

5 Theories of Motivation

6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Hierarchy need General  examples Applications in the workplace Self-actualization creativity, acceptance of facts, lack of prejudice, spontaneous, and morality • creative and challenging work • participation in decision making • job flexibility and autonomy Esteem recognition from others, prestige, status, and self-esteem • responsibility  • praise/recognition from boss • promotion to job with more responsibility Belonging acceptance, love, and being part of a group • friendly co-workers • interaction with customers • pleasant supervisor Safety physical security, economic security, and freedom from threats • safe working conditions • job security • base salary and benefits Physiological water, food, sleep, warmth, shelter, and exercise • rest, refreshment breaks • physical comfort on the job • reasonable work hours

8 Alderfer’s ERG Theory He condensed Maslow’s five needs into three categories: Existence - which refers to physiological and safety needs. Relatedness - which involves social and external esteem needs, i.e., satisfying personal relationships Growth - which relates to self-actualization and internal esteem needs Like the hierarchy of needs, the ERG Theory also presents a model of progressive needs However, unlike Maslow’s theory, the hierarchical aspect of the ERG Theory is not rigid. This flexibility allows the ERG Theory to account for a wider range of observed behaviors, e.g., it can explain the “starving artist” who may place growth needs above existence ones

9 McClelland’s Theory of Acquired Needs
His theory involves three needs; and it states that these needs are acquired or learned during an individual's lifetime: Need for Achievement - the desire to do things well and master tasks Need for Affiliation - the desire to establish and maintain good relationships Need for Power - the desire to control or influence other people Managers need to appreciate the diversity in how individuals are motivated By recognizing strengths of each need in the people they manage, they can create work assignments that are responsive to people’s needs Workers are often motivated by intrinsic factors, and therefore allowing creativity and innovation on the job will motivate many workers

10 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Can you remember what this is from Unit 2 when we studied Job Satisfaction?

11 Locke's Goal-setting Theory of Motivation
Locke researched the impact that goals can have on individual performance One conclusion of goal-setting research is that goals must be challenging and specific if they are going to be effective and increase performance Performance also depends on Goal Commitment And on Goal Acceptance It is best to involve workers in the development of goals However, workers will respond positively to goals that they didn’t help set if their manager is trusted and adequately supports their efforts to achieve the goals

12 Locke's Goal-setting Theory of Motivation
How do goals affect performance? Goals can lead to greater effort as the individual works harder to meet the goals Goals can narrow attention and direct efforts to goal-relevant activities Goals can increase persistence and make people more likely to work through setbacks Limitations: The goals of a manager and the workers must be aligned with the goals of the organization as a whole For complex tasks, goal-setting could actually impair performance if the individual becomes preoccupied with meeting the goals, rather than performing tasks

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