Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Motivation and Empowerment

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Empowerment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation and Empowerment
Chapter 8 Motivation and Empowerment

2 Chapter Objectives Recognize and apply the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Motivate others by meeting their higher-level needs. Apply needs-based theory of motivation. Implement individual and systemwide rewards. Avoid the disadvantages of “carrot-and-stick” motivation. Implement empowerment by providing the five elements of information, knowledge, discretion, meaning, and rewards.

3 “The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy” Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

4 Motivation The forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action

5 Ex. 8.1 A Simple Model of Motivation
Need Creates desire to fulfill needs (money, friendship, recognition, achievement Behavior Results in actions to fulfill needs Rewards Satisfy needs: intrinsic or extrinsic rewards Feedback Reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again

6 Types of Rewards Intrinsic Rewards Extrinsic Rewards
Internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action Extrinsic Rewards Rewards given by another person, typically a supervisor, such as pay increases and promotions Systemwide Rewards Rewards that apply the same to all people within an organization or within a specific category or department

7 Ex. 8.2 Examples of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards
Individual Large merit increase Feeling of self-fulfillment Pride in being part of a “winning” organization Systemwide Insurance benefits

8 Ex. 8.3 Needs of People and Motivation Methods
Conventional management Leadership Lower needs Higher needs Carrot and stick (Extrinsic) Empowerment (Intrinsic) Growth and fulfillment Control people Best effort Adequate effort

9 Ex. 8.4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Need Hierarchy Fulfillment on the Job Opportunities for advancement, autonomy, growth, creativity Self-actualization Needs Esteem Needs Recognition, approval, high status, increased responsibilities Belongingness Needs Work groups, clients, coworkers, supervisors Safety Needs Safe work, fringe benefits, job security Physiological Needs Heat, air, base salary

10 Ex. 8.5 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Highly Satisfied Motivators Achievement Recognition Responsibility Work itself Personal growth Area of Satisfaction Motivators influence level of satisfaction Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Hygiene Factors Work conditions Pay/security Co. policies Supervisors Area of Dissatisfaction Hygiene factors influence level of dissatisfaction Interpersonal. relationships Highly Dissatisfied

11 Reinforcement Theory Behavior Modification – the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory used to modify behavior. Law of effect – positively reinforced behavior tends to be repeated and behavior that is not reinforced is not repeated.

12 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement – anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited. Positive reinforcement: a pleasant and rewarding consequence following a behavior. Negative reinforcement: the withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved. (avoidance learning)

13 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement
Punishment: the imposition of unpleasant outcomes following undesirable behavior. Extinction: the withdrawal of a positive reward so that behavior is no longer reinforce and therefore less likely to occur in the future.

14 Acquired Needs Theory McClelland’s theory that proposes that certain types of needs are acquired during an individual’s lifetime Three needs most frequently studied: Need for achievement Need for affiliation Need for power

15 Ex. 8.6 Key Elements of Expectancy Theory
Will putting effort into the task lead to the desired performance? E > P expectancy Effort Performance Will high performance lead to the desired outcomes? P > O expectancy Performance Outcomes Valence – value of outcomes (pay, recognition, other rewards) Are the available outcomes highly valued? Motivation

16 Equity Theory A theory that proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance

17 Equity Theory Equity = when my outcomes to inputs equals the ratio of other’s in work group. Inequity = when my outcomes to inputs to do not equal the ratio of other’s in work group. Outcomes: pay recognition, promotions and other rewards Inputs: education, experience, effort and ability

18 Carrot Stick Controversy
Extrinsic rewards diminish intrinsic rewards. Extrinsic rewards are temporary. Extrinsic rewards assume people are driven by lower needs. Organizations are too complex for carrot and stick approaches. Carrot and stick approaches destroy people’s motivation to work as a group.

19 Managers Hope For But They Reward
Teamwork and collaboration Innovative thinking and risk taking Development of people skills Employee involvement and empowerment High achievement Commitment to loyalty Long-term growth The Best individual performers Proven methods and not making mistakes Technical achievements and accomplishments Tight control over operations and resources Another year’s routine effort Shipping on time, even with defects Quarterly earnings

20 Empowerment Power sharing; the delegation of power or authority or to subordinates in the organization.

21 Elements of Empowerment
Employees receive information about company performance Employees receive knowledge and skills to contribute to the company goals. Employees have the power to make substantive decisions. Employees understand the meaning and impact of their jobs. Employees are rewarded based on company performance.

22 Engagement Being emotionally connected to the organization; being fully involved in and enthusiastic about his or her work and who cares about the success of the organization.

23 Motivational Programs
Employee ownership Gainsharing Pay for knowledge Pay for performance Job enrichment

Download ppt "Motivation and Empowerment"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google