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U.S. History EOCT test Unit 5 Preparation.

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1 U.S. History EOCT test Unit 5 Preparation

2 SSUSH 11 The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.

3 SSUSH 11a Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business

4 Bessemer Process Process for making steel invented by Henry Bessemer.
Made Steel stronger by removing impurities. Uses air to blow out gases and carbon that weaken steel.

5 Benefits of the Bessemer Process
Steel made cheaper and more affordable. Made for faster expansion of railroads. And more construction. Products made from steel are longer lasting and withstand pressure


7 The 1860s Expansion of Railroads caused Big Business to dominate the Economy of the United States.

8 The Increase in Railroads stimulated national economic growth.

9 Monopoly Main goal is to eliminate competition.
Considered unfair by progressives. During the 1800s industrial and business leaders accumulate wealth by forming monopolies and trusts.

10 No other choice to buy the product or service.
Characteristics Definition An economic market in which there is only one supplier of a product and no market competition and the company has complete control over quality, wages, Prices. The only company. No other choice to buy the product or service. Monopoly : Examples Non-Examples Georgia Power is the only power company in Bainbridge. You can’t switch over to another company. If you want a cell phone you can shop with (Choice): Verizon Wireless or Alltel

11 Organization of Business to Eliminate Competition
Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration A business strategy in which one corporation buys out all of its competitors. For instance, One Steel mill will buy out other steel mills that are competing against it. A business strategy in which one corporation owns not only the company that produces the finished product, but also the companies that provide the materials needed. In some instances, the transportation to the market is also owned.



14 Example of Vertical Integration Used by Andrew Carnegie in the formation of Carnegie Steel company

15 Vertical Integration Type of organization in which a company owns and controls the entire process of production from raw materials to manufacture and sale of finished product.

16 Owns Company that Makes Steel

17 Owns Iron Ore Mine

18 Owns Railroad to Transport Steel

19 Purpose of Horizontal & Vertical Integration
John D. Rockefeller once said in his own words that he was determined to “pay nobody a profit” The purpose was to cut down on cost and enjoy the profits of the business. Simple formula to get rich: Bring in more money than you pay out!

20 Andrew Carnegie Scottish born founder of Carnegie Steel
Company that produced more steel than all of Great Britain Sold his company to J.P. Morgan for almost $500 million in 1901 Then devoted his time to “Gospel of Wealth” – using his wealth to finance philanthropy

21 SSUSH 11b Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor.


23 Impact of Railroads - Positive
Made it easier for people to move west and populate the west at a faster rate. Made life in the west possible by allowing farmers, ranchers, and other settlers access to eastern markets and resources.

24 Impact of Railroads - Negative
Native Americans will suffer. Buffalo are killed and great numbers by fur trappers and cow ranchers and the Plains Indians relied heavily on the Buffalo to live. Interrupted Native American way of life. Native Americans forced to relocate to reservations. Native Americans forced to assimilate American customs and ways of life. (Dawes Act)

25 1862 Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad companies financed by the government to build the Transcontinental Railroad to connect eastern and western U.S. Union Pacific Railroad (Eastern) Central Pacific Railroad (Western) Joined at Promontory Point, Utah

26 Transcontinental Railroad

27 Chinese labor on Transcontinental Railroad
Chinese underwent discrimination. Long hours Little pay Harsh weather, extreme heat, cold Dangerous environments. Many died.

28 SSUSH 11c Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies.

29 John D. Rockefeller & Vertical and Horizontal Integration
John D. Rockefeller owned the Oil industry. Rockefeller bought out other oil businesses. (Horizontal Integration). Rockefeller also owned his own barrels, cans, to ship the oil in, the railroad to ship the Oil on, etc. (Vertical Integration). Rockefeller went a step further when he joined other Monopolies to form a TRUST!

30 Trust A business formation in which competing companies create one large corporation and each company is entitled to dividends.


32 Characteristics Definition A business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system with the intention of destroying competition and creating monopolies. Set prices. Control the industry. Total economic domination. Trust : Examples Non-Examples Trusts are illegal now so there are not real examples. Verizon, Alltell, At&t, Microsoft, and internet providers are not together and must COMPETE with one another to get consumers money. If Verizon, Alltell, At&t, and Microsoft, Internet providers come together they could dominate the communication industry. Eliminate competition, set prices, Competition results in cheaper prices, better quality, and more services.

33 John D. Rockefeller Founder of the Standard Oil Company in 1863 at the age of 24 He bought our destroyed his competition, Set up a monopoly on the oil industry and became very wealthy Tactic was Horizontal integration – He bought out all competitors to create a Monopoly then a Trust.


35 J. P. Morgan Bought Carnegie Steel in 1901
He merged it and other steel companies into US Steel in march 1901


37 “Robber Barons” “Captains of Industry”
Wealthy entrepreneurs and businessmen during the Industrial Age Made the U.S. extremely wealthy – referred to in a positive way as “Captains of Industry” People underpaid, child labor, poor and unhealthy working conditions in order to make a profit – referred to as “Robber Barons” Notable robber barons include Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller


39 Laissez-Faire The idea that government would have a “hands-off” policy and would not regulate big Business No Minimum Wage, No OSHA, No law against child labor, no regulatory commissions for safe and clean food. Adam Smith Wealth of Nations

40 Social Darwinism Theory that grew out of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species theory of biological evolution. “survival of the fittest” Natural Selection Social Darwinism was a theory created by Herbert Spencer to explain the evolution of human society. This theory justified the disparity in wealth and encouraged unregulated competition and frowned on government regulation.


42 Characteristics Definition The idea that promoted inequality in wealth based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution but transferred to social differences among humans. Only the fittest will be rich. Weaker will be poor. It is natures way. Natural for this to be. Social Darwinism : Examples Non-Examples Bill Gates is rich because he is intelligent and worked hard. Everyone is equal and should have the same pay regardless. Average individual that drops out school, doesn’t read, and does drugs lives in poverty and jail because he/she is weaker and inferior. Government Regulation of Business. (minimum wage, OSHA, 40 hr. work week, no child labor) Redistribution of Wealth - Socialism.

43 John D. Rockefeller Quote
“The growth of large business is merely the survival of the fittest.”

44 SSUSH 11d Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life.

45 Thomas Edison Wizard of Menlo park
Invented electric light bulb, motion pictures, phonograph, Impacted American life.

46 Light Bulb & Electric Power Stations
Allowed factory workers to work at night and production to occur at night. Electric Power Stations make electric power possible throughout cities. (steam powered)

47 Buried Oak City Cemetery
Motion Pictures Made Movies Possible Charlie Chaplin First Actor, Silent Movies Miriam Hopkins Major Movie Actress Born Bainbridge, GA Acted 1930’s 1940’s Buried Oak City Cemetery Miriam Hopkins Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, 1931

48 Phonograph Made music and recorded sound possible.
We have advanced to Mp3 and IPods.

49 SSUSH 12 The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.

50 SSUSH 12a Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrant’s origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on urban America.

51 Old Immigration Immigrants first come from Northern and Western Europe


53 NEW Immigration New Immigration refers to a change in the origin, or home place, of immigrants coming to the United States. New Immigrants come from Southern and Eastern Europe.



56 Ellis Island All immigrants coming into the east coast by way of the Atlantic Ocean come to Ellis Island.

57 Statue of Liberty - Ellis Island



60 Impact of Change on Urban America

61 Why did they come? Jobs created by the need for Labor as a result of the Industrial Revolution.

62 How did increased Immigration impact Cities?
Overcrowding! – many people lived in one house.

63 Tenement Houses

64 Ethnic Ghettos

65 Child Labor Many immigrants were so poor their children had to work.
The parents let them. The business let them. Where should they be?

66 Spider has Child Labor written on it.
Web has Profit, Greed, Luxury, Poverty, Ignorance, and Indifferent written.


68 Are you glad to be in School today?

69 SSUSH 12b Identify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers.

70 Samuel Gompers - AFL Founder of American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886 Used collective bargaining to negotiate with businesses for higher wages, better working conditions, etc.

71 Characteristics Definition The group membership of workers that fought for fairness in the workforce Minimum Wage No Child Labor 40 hour work week Equal pay for women and men Union : Examples Non-Examples American Federation of Labor Waiters Cooks Convenience store clerks National Education Association American Medical Association American Bar Association

72 Strategies of Unions Collective Bargaining (Employees negotiate as a group rather than individually) Strikes (Refusal of workers to work until employers meet their demands). Boycotts (Refusal to buy or pay for certain products or services to force businesses to change policies. Closed Shop (Workplaces where employers could only hire union members)


74 Characteristics Definition Workers or laborers upset or angered to the point of strike. Quit working and protest perceived unfair working conditions. Low pay Unequal pay Long working hours Child labor Unsafe working conditions Industrial Unrest : Examples Non-Examples 1894 Pullman Strike Union membership Minimum wage 40 hr work week

75 Describe the 1894 Pullman Strike as an example of Industrial unrest.
SSUSH 12d Describe the 1894 Pullman Strike as an example of Industrial unrest.

76 1894 Pullman Strike A good example of industrial unrest.
Turned into a violent strike against workers and management. Ended when the federal government sent in troops.



79 1894 Pullman Strike - Reasons
George Pullman Owner of Pullman Car Company Laid off workers Also cut wages, didn’t lower rent Unions strike Pullman closes company rather than deal with Unions

80 1894 Pullman Strike - resolved
Pullman car was loaded with U.S. Mail Federal government filed an injunction (legal order from court to break up strike) President Grover Cleveland calls in federal troops to break up the strike.

81 SSUSH 12c Describe the growth of western population and its impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee.

82 Growth of Western Population - Negative
Native Americans will suffer. Buffalo are killed and great numbers by fur trappers and cow ranchers and the Plains Indians relied heavily on the Buffalo to live. Interrupted Native American way of life. Native Americans forced to relocate to reservations. Native Americans forced to assimilate American customs and ways of life. (Dawes Act)

83 In 1889 a treaty was made reducing Sioux territory
In 1889 a treaty was made reducing Sioux territory. Religious excitement in connection with the Ghost Dance craze, led to an outbreak in 1890. 1890 the US Army decided to arrest Sitting Bull as a precaution.   Sitting Bull and three hundred Indians were killed at Wounded Knee Creek, and the Sioux were finally subdued. Chief Sitting Bull


85 Dawes Act 1887 act of Congress aimed at breaking up traditional Indian life by promoting land ownership. It divided up tribal lands into individual plots and Indians were encouraged to farm.



88 SSUSH 13 The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era.

89 Characteristics Definition The movement that called for more government action in the regulation of business, work environment, and called for laws governing morality, standards in education, and city development to improve societies ills. Minimum Wage laws Child labor laws 40 hr work week laws Safety laws Laws protecting unions Progressive Era : Examples Non-Examples Meat Inspection Act Laissez faire “hands off” Conservation movement

90 The movement that called for more government action in the regulation of business, work environment, and called for laws governing morality, standards in education, and city development to improve societies ills.

91 SSUSH 13a Explain Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking industry.

92 Upton Sinclair Exposed the unsanitary methods used in the Chicago Meatpacking Industry. Sinclair stated, “I aimed for the publics hearts, and accidentally hit its stomach!” Theodore Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act after reading.

93 SSUSH 13b Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform movements.

94 Jane Adams – Hull House Purpose was to help inner city “Urban” poor.
Immigrants learned how to read, write, and speak English. Night school for adults, kindergarten classes for kids, clubs for older children, a public kitchen,

95 SSUSH 13c Describe the rise of Jim Crow, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the NAACP.

96 Booker T. Washington Founder of Tuskegee Normal & Industrial College
Encouraged blacks to seek technical training for jobs to be accepted into white culture. Blamed black poverty on blacks and urged them to accept discrimination.


98 W.E.B. Du Bois Criticized Washington’s ideas
Encouraged blacks to seek higher education and become leaders (lawyers, doctors, politicians, etc.) so that they could fight discrimination in court and society. Wanted immediate social and economic equality for African Americans


100 NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Aimed to full equality among the races. Full civil rights for African Americans. W.E.B. Du Bois helped establish this group

101 Characteristics Definition Social and legal laws that were meant to separate the races in society. Black & White water fountains Black & White Schools Jim Crow : Examples Non-Examples Blacks had to move to the back of the bus to allow white people to sit up front. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Blacks could not eat in white restuaraunts.

102 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Established “Separate but Equal” doctrine.
Ruled that it was not unconstitutional to separate the races as long as they had equal services. Segregation (separation of races) legal. Homer Plessy

103 Jim Crow Era Laws passed from 1870s to 1880’s in various states.
Took away newly won rights of African Americans- especially right to vote. Examples: Poll tax, literacy test for voting, grandfather clause Separate public facilities for races.


105 Explain Ida Tarbell’s role as a muckraker.
SSUSH 13d Explain Ida Tarbell’s role as a muckraker.

106 Social Gospel Movement
Preached salvation through service to the poor. Reformers such as Jane Addams and her Hull House of Chicago responded. Encouraged government action and regulation of business and corrupt politics. Encouraged social programs by the government

107 Characteristics Definition Journalists that used writing to expose corruption, government scandal, or the wrongs in society. Inform public Influence government policy Cause change in society Muckraker : Examples Non-Examples Upton Sinclair – Chicago meatpacking Literature that covers up and hides scandals and wrongs. Ida Tarbell – The History of Standard Oil

108 Ida Tarbell Wrote about the unfair business practices of John D. Rockefeller. Calls for anti-trust legislation.

109 Other Muckrakers

110 How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Muckraker Work Subject Results Thomas Nast Political Cartoons Political corruption by NYC's political machine, Tammany Hall, led by Boss Tweed. Tweed was convicted of embezzlement and died in prison. Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives (1890) Living conditions of the urban poor; focused on tenements. NYC passed building codes to promote safety and health. Ida B. Wells A Red Record (1895) Provided statistics on the lynching of African-Americans. NAACP joined the fight for Federal anti-lynching legislation.

111 SSUSH 13e Describe the significance of progressive reforms such as the initiative, recall, and referendum; direct election of senators; reform of labor laws; and efforts to improve living conditions for the poor in cities.

112 Planks in the Populist Party Platform Direct Election of U.S. Senators
Party bosses controlled state legislatures that elected representatives to the U.S. Senate. To limit this control, the Populists proposed allowing citizens to directly elect U.S. Senators. Secret Ballot Privacy at the ballot box would ensure that citizens can cast votes without party bosses knowing how they voted. Initiative A proposal for a law that originates with state citizens and bypasses the legislature and gets on the ballot by the petition process. Referendum A process where legislatures place a proposed law on the ballot to allow citizens to vote law into effect. Recall Would allow voters to petition to have an elected representative removed from office. Direct Primary Designed to ensure that voters select candidates to run for office, rather than party bosses.

113 Senators Chosen Elected
Before 17th Amendment

114 Progressivism

115 Progressive Era Federal Legislation
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906/1911) Required that companies accurately label the ingredients contained in processed food items. Meat Inspection Act (1906) In direct response to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, this law required that meat processing plants be inspected to ensure the use of good meat and health-minded procedures.

116 Progressive Era Federal Legislation Cont…
Hepburn Act (1906) Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, allowing it to set maximum railroad rates. Federal Reserve Act (1913) Created 12 district  Federal Reserve Banks, each able to issue new currency and loan member banks funds at the prime interest rate, as established by the Federal Reserve Board. Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by outlawing the creation of a monopoly through any means, and stated that unions were not subject to antitrust legislation. Federal Trade Act (1914) Established the Federal Trade Commission, charged with investigating unfair business practices including monopolistic activity and inaccurate product labeling.

117 Progressive Era Amendments
16th (1913) Granted Congress the power to tax income. 17th (1913) Provided for the direct election of U.S. Senators. 18th (1919) Prohibited making, selling, or transporting alcohol. 19th (1920) Provided women suffrage (voting).

118 SSUSH 13f Describe the conservation movement and the development of national parks and forests; include the role of Theodore Roosevelt.

119 Theodore Roosevelt Fought in the Spanish American War
Oversaw building of the Panama Canal Led the Rough Riders at the Battle of San Juan Hill Issued the Roosevelt Corollary (an extension of the Monroe Doctrine) Preservation or Conservation of U.S. Natural resources.

120 Characteristics Definition The setting aside land to preserve it from the devastating effects of industrialization and the closing of the frontier. To keep land from businesses. Not allow homes or industry to clear trees and forests. Protect by government law. Conservation : Examples Non-Examples Yellow Stone National Park Land for mining, excavating for oil, gold, iron ore, or marble. Yosemite National Park

121 National Parks - Conservation

122 SSUSH 14 The Student will explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century.

123 SSUSH 14a Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on the west coast.

124 Chinese Exclusion Act Law passed in Congress in 1882 to restrict the immigration of Chinese into the United States. Was not repealed until 1943

125 Characteristics Definition The idea that to oppose immigration of cultures that were different. Usually leads to violence and discrimination and based on fear of different cultures. Do not like Catholics. Do not like Communists. Do not like Chinese. Nativism : Examples Non-Examples Chinese Exclusion Act Equal employment Civil Rights Equality under the Law Racism



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