2 SSUSH 11The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.
3 SSUSH 11aExplain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business
4 Bessemer Process Process for making steel invented by Henry Bessemer. Made Steel stronger by removing impurities.Uses air to blow out gases and carbon that weaken steel.
5 Benefits of the Bessemer Process Steel made cheaper and more affordable.Made for faster expansion of railroads. And more construction.Products made from steel are longer lasting and withstand pressure
7 The 1860s Expansion of Railroads caused Big Business to dominate the Economy of the United States.
8 The Increase in Railroads stimulated national economic growth.
9 Monopoly Main goal is to eliminate competition. Considered unfair by progressives.During the 1800s industrial and business leaders accumulate wealth by forming monopolies and trusts.
10 No other choice to buy the product or service. CharacteristicsDefinitionAn economic market in which there is only one supplier of a product and no market competition and the company has complete control over quality, wages, Prices.The only company.No other choice to buy the product or service.Monopoly:ExamplesNon-ExamplesGeorgia Power is the only power company in Bainbridge. You can’t switch over to another company.If you want a cell phone you can shop with (Choice):Verizon WirelessorAlltel
11 Organization of Business to Eliminate Competition Horizontal IntegrationVertical IntegrationA business strategy in which one corporation buys out all of its competitors. For instance, One Steel mill will buy out other steel mills that are competing against it.A business strategy in which one corporation owns not only the company that produces the finished product, but also the companies that provide the materials needed. In some instances, the transportation to the market is also owned.
19 Purpose of Horizontal & Vertical Integration John D. Rockefeller once said in his own words that he was determined to “pay nobody a profit”The purpose was to cut down on cost and enjoy the profits of the business.Simple formula to get rich: Bring in more money than you pay out!
20 Andrew Carnegie Scottish born founder of Carnegie Steel Company that produced more steel than all of Great BritainSold his company to J.P. Morgan for almost $500 million in 1901Then devoted his time to “Gospel of Wealth” – using his wealth to finance philanthropy
21 SSUSH 11bDescribe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor.
23 Impact of Railroads - Positive Made it easier for people to move west and populate the west at a faster rate.Made life in the west possible by allowing farmers, ranchers, and other settlers access to eastern markets and resources.
24 Impact of Railroads - Negative Native Americans will suffer.Buffalo are killed and great numbers by fur trappers and cow ranchers and the Plains Indians relied heavily on the Buffalo to live.Interrupted Native American way of life.Native Americans forced to relocate to reservations.Native Americans forced to assimilate American customs and ways of life. (Dawes Act)
25 1862 Transcontinental Railroad Railroad companies financed by the government to build the Transcontinental Railroad to connect eastern and western U.S.Union Pacific Railroad (Eastern)Central Pacific Railroad (Western)Joined at Promontory Point, Utah
27 Chinese labor on Transcontinental Railroad Chinese underwent discrimination.Long hoursLittle payHarsh weather, extreme heat, coldDangerous environments.Many died.
28 SSUSH 11cIdentify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies.
29 John D. Rockefeller & Vertical and Horizontal Integration John D. Rockefeller owned the Oil industry.Rockefeller bought out other oil businesses. (Horizontal Integration).Rockefeller also owned his own barrels, cans, to ship the oil in, the railroad to ship the Oil on, etc. (Vertical Integration).Rockefeller went a step further when he joined other Monopolies to form a TRUST!
30 TrustA business formation in which competing companies create one large corporation and each company is entitled to dividends.
32 CharacteristicsDefinitionA business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system with the intention of destroying competition and creating monopolies.Set prices.Control the industry.Total economic domination.Trust:ExamplesNon-ExamplesTrusts are illegal now so there are not real examples.Verizon, Alltell, At&t, Microsoft, and internet providers are not together and must COMPETE with one another to get consumers money.If Verizon, Alltell, At&t, and Microsoft, Internet providers come together they could dominate the communication industry. Eliminate competition, set prices,Competition results in cheaper prices, better quality, and more services.
33 John D. RockefellerFounder of the Standard Oil Company in 1863 at the age of 24He bought our destroyed his competition,Set up a monopoly on the oil industry and became very wealthyTactic was Horizontal integration – He bought out all competitors to create a Monopoly then a Trust.
37 “Robber Barons” “Captains of Industry” Wealthy entrepreneurs and businessmen during the Industrial AgeMade the U.S. extremely wealthy – referred to in a positive way as “Captains of Industry”People underpaid, child labor, poor and unhealthy working conditions in order to make a profit – referred to as “Robber Barons”Notable robber barons include Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller
39 Laissez-FaireThe idea that government would have a “hands-off” policy and would not regulate big BusinessNo Minimum Wage, No OSHA, No law against child labor, no regulatory commissions for safe and clean food.Adam SmithWealth of Nations
40 Social DarwinismTheory that grew out of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species theory of biological evolution.“survival of the fittest” Natural SelectionSocial Darwinism was a theory created by Herbert Spencer to explain the evolution of human society.This theory justified the disparity in wealth and encouraged unregulated competition and frowned on government regulation.
42 CharacteristicsDefinitionThe idea that promoted inequality in wealth based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution but transferred to social differences among humans.Only the fittest will be rich.Weaker will be poor.It is natures way.Natural for this to be.SocialDarwinism:ExamplesNon-ExamplesBill Gates is rich because he is intelligent and worked hard.Everyone is equal and should have the same pay regardless.Average individual that drops out school, doesn’t read, and does drugs lives in poverty and jail because he/she is weaker and inferior.Government Regulation of Business. (minimum wage, OSHA, 40 hr. work week, no child labor)Redistribution of Wealth - Socialism.
43 John D. Rockefeller Quote “The growth of large business is merely the survival of the fittest.”
44 SSUSH 11dDescribe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life.
45 Thomas Edison Wizard of Menlo park Invented electric light bulb, motion pictures, phonograph,Impacted American life.
46 Light Bulb & Electric Power Stations Allowed factory workers to work at night and production to occur at night.Electric Power Stations make electric power possible throughout cities. (steam powered)
47 Buried Oak City Cemetery Motion PicturesMade Movies PossibleCharlie ChaplinFirst Actor, Silent MoviesMiriam HopkinsMajor Movie ActressBorn Bainbridge, GAActed 1930’s 1940’sBuried Oak City CemeteryMiriam HopkinsDr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde,1931
48 Phonograph Made music and recorded sound possible. We have advanced to Mp3 and IPods.
49 SSUSH 12The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
50 SSUSH 12aDescribe Ellis Island, the change in immigrant’s origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on urban America.
51 Old ImmigrationImmigrants first come from Northern and Western Europe
69 SSUSH 12bIdentify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers.
70 Samuel Gompers - AFLFounder of American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886Used collective bargaining to negotiate with businesses for higher wages, better working conditions, etc.
71 CharacteristicsDefinitionThe group membership of workers that fought for fairness in the workforceMinimum WageNo Child Labor40 hour work weekEqual pay for women and menUnion:ExamplesNon-ExamplesAmerican Federation of LaborWaitersCooksConvenience store clerksNational Education AssociationAmerican Medical AssociationAmerican Bar Association
72 Strategies of UnionsCollective Bargaining (Employees negotiate as a group rather than individually)Strikes (Refusal of workers to work until employers meet their demands).Boycotts (Refusal to buy or pay for certain products or services to force businesses to change policies.Closed Shop (Workplaces where employers could only hire union members)
74 CharacteristicsDefinitionWorkers or laborers upset or angered to the point of strike. Quit working and protest perceived unfair working conditions.Low payUnequal payLong working hoursChild laborUnsafe working conditionsIndustrialUnrest:ExamplesNon-Examples1894 Pullman StrikeUnion membershipMinimum wage40 hr work week
75 Describe the 1894 Pullman Strike as an example of Industrial unrest. SSUSH 12dDescribe the 1894 Pullman Strike as an example of Industrial unrest.
76 1894 Pullman Strike A good example of industrial unrest. Turned into a violent strike against workers and management.Ended when the federal government sent in troops.
79 1894 Pullman Strike - Reasons George PullmanOwner of Pullman Car CompanyLaid off workersAlso cut wages, didn’t lower rentUnions strikePullman closes company rather than deal with Unions
80 1894 Pullman Strike - resolved Pullman car was loaded with U.S. MailFederal government filed an injunction (legal order from court to break up strike)President Grover Cleveland calls in federal troops to break up the strike.
81 SSUSH 12cDescribe the growth of western population and its impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee.
82 Growth of Western Population - Negative Native Americans will suffer.Buffalo are killed and great numbers by fur trappers and cow ranchers and the Plains Indians relied heavily on the Buffalo to live.Interrupted Native American way of life.Native Americans forced to relocate to reservations.Native Americans forced to assimilate American customs and ways of life. (Dawes Act)
83 In 1889 a treaty was made reducing Sioux territory In 1889 a treaty was made reducing Sioux territory. Religious excitement in connection with the Ghost Dance craze, led to an outbreak in 1890.1890 the US Army decided to arrest Sitting Bull as a precaution. Sitting Bull and three hundred Indians were killed at Wounded Knee Creek, and the Sioux were finally subdued.Chief Sitting Bull
88 SSUSH 13The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era.
89 CharacteristicsDefinitionThe movement that called for more government action in the regulation of business, work environment, and called for laws governing morality, standards in education, and city development to improve societies ills.Minimum Wage lawsChild labor laws40 hr work week lawsSafety lawsLaws protecting unionsProgressiveEra:ExamplesNon-ExamplesMeat Inspection ActLaissez faire “hands off”Conservation movement
90 The movement that called for more government action in the regulation of business, work environment, and called for laws governing morality, standards in education, and city development to improve societies ills.
91 SSUSH 13aExplain Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking industry.
92 Upton SinclairExposed the unsanitary methods used in the Chicago Meatpacking Industry.Sinclair stated, “I aimed for the publics hearts, and accidentally hit its stomach!”Theodore Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act after reading.
93 SSUSH 13bIdentify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform movements.
94 Jane Adams – Hull House Purpose was to help inner city “Urban” poor. Immigrants learned how to read, write, and speak English.Night school for adults, kindergarten classes for kids, clubs for older children, a public kitchen,
95 SSUSH 13cDescribe the rise of Jim Crow, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the NAACP.
96 Booker T. Washington Founder of Tuskegee Normal & Industrial College Encouraged blacks to seek technical training for jobs to be accepted into white culture.Blamed black poverty on blacks and urged them to accept discrimination.
98 W.E.B. Du Bois Criticized Washington’s ideas Encouraged blacks to seek higher education and become leaders (lawyers, doctors, politicians, etc.) so that they could fight discrimination in court and society.Wanted immediate social and economic equality for African Americans
100 NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Aimed to full equality among the races. Full civil rights for African Americans.W.E.B. Du Bois helped establish this group
101 CharacteristicsDefinitionSocial and legal laws that were meant to separate the races in society.Black & White water fountainsBlack & White SchoolsJim Crow:ExamplesNon-ExamplesBlacks had to move to the back of the bus to allow white people to sit up front.Brown v. Board of Education (1954)Blacks could not eat in white restuaraunts.
102 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Established “Separate but Equal” doctrine. Ruled that it was not unconstitutional to separate the races as long as they had equal services.Segregation (separation of races) legal.Homer Plessy
103 Jim Crow Era Laws passed from 1870s to 1880’s in various states. Took away newly won rights of African Americans- especially right to vote.Examples: Poll tax, literacy test for voting, grandfather clauseSeparate public facilities for races.
105 Explain Ida Tarbell’s role as a muckraker. SSUSH 13dExplain Ida Tarbell’s role as a muckraker.
106 Social Gospel Movement Preached salvation through service to the poor.Reformers such as Jane Addams and her Hull House of Chicago responded.Encouraged government action and regulation of business and corrupt politics.Encouraged social programs by the government
107 CharacteristicsDefinitionJournalists that used writing to expose corruption, government scandal, or the wrongs in society.Inform publicInfluence government policyCause change in societyMuckraker:ExamplesNon-ExamplesUpton Sinclair – Chicago meatpackingLiterature that covers up and hides scandals and wrongs.Ida Tarbell – The History of Standard Oil
108 Ida TarbellWrote about the unfair business practices of John D. Rockefeller.Calls for anti-trust legislation.
110 How the Other Half Lives (1890) MuckrakerWorkSubjectResultsThomas NastPolitical CartoonsPolitical corruption by NYC's political machine, Tammany Hall, led by Boss Tweed.Tweed was convicted of embezzlement and died in prison.Jacob RiisHow the Other Half Lives (1890)Living conditions of the urban poor; focused on tenements.NYC passed building codes to promote safety and health.Ida B. WellsA Red Record (1895)Provided statistics on the lynching of African-Americans.NAACP joined the fight for Federal anti-lynching legislation.
111 SSUSH 13eDescribe the significance of progressive reforms such as the initiative, recall, and referendum; direct election of senators; reform of labor laws; and efforts to improve living conditions for the poor in cities.
112 Planks in the Populist Party Platform Direct Election of U.S. Senators Party bosses controlled state legislatures that elected representatives to the U.S. Senate. To limit this control, the Populists proposed allowing citizens to directly elect U.S. Senators.Secret BallotPrivacy at the ballot box would ensure that citizens can cast votes without party bosses knowing how they voted.InitiativeA proposal for a law that originates with state citizens and bypasses the legislature and gets on the ballot by the petition process.ReferendumA process where legislatures place a proposed law on the ballot to allow citizens to vote law into effect.RecallWould allow voters to petition to have an elected representative removed from office.Direct PrimaryDesigned to ensure that voters select candidates to run for office, rather than party bosses.
115 Progressive Era Federal Legislation Pure Food and Drug Act (1906/1911)Required that companies accurately label the ingredients contained in processed food items.Meat Inspection Act (1906)In direct response to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, this law required that meat processing plants be inspected to ensure the use of good meat and health-minded procedures.
116 Progressive Era Federal Legislation Cont… Hepburn Act (1906)Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, allowing it to set maximum railroad rates.Federal Reserve Act (1913)Created 12 district Federal Reserve Banks, each able to issue new currency and loan member banks funds at the prime interest rate, as established by the Federal Reserve Board.Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by outlawing the creation of a monopoly through any means, and stated that unions were not subject to antitrust legislation.Federal Trade Act (1914)Established the Federal Trade Commission, charged with investigating unfair business practices including monopolistic activity and inaccurate product labeling.
117 Progressive Era Amendments 16th (1913)Granted Congress the power to tax income.17th (1913)Provided for the direct election of U.S. Senators.18th (1919)Prohibited making, selling, or transporting alcohol.19th (1920)Provided women suffrage (voting).
118 SSUSH 13fDescribe the conservation movement and the development of national parks and forests; include the role of Theodore Roosevelt.
119 Theodore Roosevelt Fought in the Spanish American War Oversaw building of the Panama CanalLed the Rough Riders at the Battle of San Juan HillIssued the Roosevelt Corollary (an extension of the Monroe Doctrine)Preservation or Conservation of U.S. Natural resources.
120 CharacteristicsDefinitionThe setting aside land to preserve it from the devastating effects of industrialization and the closing of the frontier.To keep land from businesses.Not allow homes or industry to clear trees and forests.Protect by government law.Conservation:ExamplesNon-ExamplesYellow Stone National ParkLand for mining, excavating for oil, gold, iron ore, or marble.Yosemite National Park
122 SSUSH 14The Student will explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century.
123 SSUSH 14aExplain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on the west coast.
124 Chinese Exclusion ActLaw passed in Congress in 1882 to restrict the immigration of Chinese into the United States.Was not repealed until 1943
125 CharacteristicsDefinitionThe idea that to oppose immigration of cultures that were different. Usually leads to violence and discrimination and based on fear of different cultures.Do not like Catholics.Do not like Communists.Do not like Chinese.Nativism:ExamplesNon-ExamplesChinese Exclusion ActEqual employmentCivil RightsEquality under the LawRacism