Presentation on theme: "What kind of negative impact did Industrialization have on workers, farmers, cities, women, children, etc?"— Presentation transcript:
What kind of negative impact did Industrialization have on workers, farmers, cities, women, children, etc?
Reaction to Industrialization— against big business and social problems caused by industrialization Populist movement – 1880s- 1890s farmers movement to lower shipping rates and other reforms The Progressive movement wanted government to play a larger role in helping people and fixing society
Reform Movements of the mid-1800s Women played a large role in social reform because they had no political rights (could not vote) Temperance (Prohibition) – ban alcohol Women’s Suffrage – women’s right to vote 1848—Seneca Falls Convention kicks off women’s suffrage movement
Populists – reform for farmers and democratic reform Populists wanted lower shipping rates for farm goods Started as the Grange movement Populist Ideas that Became Progressive Laws 1.Direct election of Senators 2.Progressive Income tax (earn more $, pay more tax)
In 2 paragraphs, explain how some negative aspects of industrialization led to calls for reform in the Progressive Era.
1. What was the temperance movement and why did it begin? 2. What were the Populists protesting against?
Other major issue for Populists: Free silver Money was on gold standard rare and expensive (benefitted the rich) Farmers wanted silver to be legal tender (would result in inflation cheaper for farmers to pay off debts) 1896 Populist Democrat William Jennings Bryan runs for President in support of free silver
During the Populist era, government made some reform to slow industrialization, but did not enforce the laws or decisions Interstate Commerce Act (1887)– created the Interstate Commerce Commission to investigate and end railroad shipping rate abuses Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890)– prohibited monopolies, made trusts illegal ***These laws and decisions were rarely enforced by the federal government until the early 1900s***
Muckrakers --members of the press that investigated corruption in order to expose problems to the American people.
Jacob Riis – wrote How the Other Half Lives to expose poor living conditions in the slums of New York City
Ida Tarbell – wrote “History of Standard Oil Company” in 1904, which exposed the ruthless business practices of Standard Oil Company. In 1911, the Supreme Court ruled that Standard Oil was a monopoly and It was broken up Lincoln Steffens – wrote “The Shame of the Cities” in 1904, which examined political corruption in U.S. cities
Upton Sinclair – wrote a novel called “The Jungle” in 1906, which exposed the dangerous and unhealthy working conditions of the meat-packing industry.
1. Which muckraker wrote The Jungle? 2. What sort of issues were the muckrakers trying to reform?
Jane Addams – founded Hull House in Chicago. She pioneered social work by giving aid to women and immigrants. 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire – in NYC, 146 garment workers (mostly women) died because they were locked inside the factory. This led to fire safety reform, and factory safety reforms.
The Progressives wanted to make the government more democratic, so they created many reforms in some states. Initiative – the right of citizens to propose a new law Referendum – Allows voters to pass or reject a law. Recall– Allows voters to have an elected representative removed from office. Direct Primary –voters select candidates to run for office
Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 Was known as the “Trustbuster” president because he worked to break up only harmful trusts. Called his reforms “The Square Deal” 1904 – the Supreme Court ruled that the Northern Securities railroad was an illegal monopoly Pure food and Drug Act (1906) -- Required that companies accurately label the ingredients contained in food items. Meat Inspection Act (1906) –Required the government to have health inspectors make sure meat is safely produced
William H. Taft 1909-1913 Broke up trusts such as U.S. Steel, but eventually stopped his progressive policies Roosevelt decided to run for President against Taft in 1912 Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote in 1912, allowing Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson to win the election.
Woodrow Wilson 1913- 1921 Wilson believed that all monopolies and trusts should be broken up Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) -- Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by outlawing all monopolies Federal Reserve Act (1913) – allowed the government to regulate the money supply by raising or lowering interest rates.
16 th Amendment (1913) – allowed the federal government to create an income tax 17 th Amendment (1913) – Allowed for the direct election of U.S. Senators by the people, not state legislatures
18th Amendment (1919) – Prohibition. Banned the production, selling, or transportation of alcohol. Repealed in 1933 with the 21st amendment.
19th Amendment (1920) – Women’s Suffrage. Gave women the right to vote in all elections.
After World War I, the American public had grown tired of all the change and reform. In the 1920 election, Senator Warren Harding called for a “Return to Normalcy”, meaning an end to Progressive reform and involvement in world affairs. He promised a return to laissez- faire government and isolationist foreign policy. He won the election in a landslide.