2 PAGE 1 LITERARY ELEMENTS Point of view 10. Conflict Irony 11. Metaphor MoodSettingCharacterizationProtagonistSymbolAllusiontheme10. Conflict11. Metaphor12. Hyperbole13. Alliteration14. Personification15. onomatopoeia
3 LITERARY ELEMENTS PAGE 2 FOR NUMBER 1-6 CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS: Idiom AllusionPersonificationOxymoronIronysimileFOR NUMBER 7-13CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS:OnomatopoeiaMetaphorallusionImageryIdiomCharacterizationForeshadowing
4 CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS: Theme Diction Metaphor Hyperbole LITERARY ELEMENTSPAGE 2FOR NUMBER 14-17CHOOSE FROM THESE TERMS:ThemeDictionMetaphorHyperbole
6 REVIEW PAGE 3 Adorn – to enhance or decorate Attache – assistant to an ambassador or other high officialClutch – to grasp and hold tightRestrain – to hold back; to controlProdigy – a person with an exceptional talentSubtle – slight, difficult to detectLiable – likely toNaturalist – one who studies living things, especially plants oranimals, by observing them directlyArresting – demanding the attention; strikingREVIEWPAGE 3
7 Sober – to make or become serious and quiet VOCABULARYSober – to make or become serious and quietForfeit – to lose as a penalty for some error or failureVeranda – a long porch, usually with a roof, alongone or more sides of a houseREVIEWPAGE 3
8 TOP EIGHT VERBSAnalyze – Take apart a concept or a process, explain it step by stepCompare – Show likenesses when you compare two eventsDescribe – Give an account of in wordsDevelop – To expand or enlarge by adding detail and fullnessInfer – To conclude from the evidence givenMake – to form in the mind or composeUnderstand – To grasp the importance of, to grasp the meaning of
11 “THE DINNER PARTY” REVIEW PAGE 6 A colonial official and his wifeWho has the most self-control, men or women? The two people areyoung woman and the Colonel.3. The servant puts a bowl of milk on the veranda.Makes a bet with the guest to sit stillThe colonial official’s wife because the snake slitheredacross her foot.
12 “Raymond’s Run” REVIEW PAGE 6 1. …Squeaky loves to run and at the end of the story she sees Raymond’s potential as a runner too.2. …her brother Raymond3. …Squeak’s identity is important to her and that is why she insists Mr. Pearson use her real name.4. …Squeaky wants to win the May Day race and Gretchen has put out a tale that she will win the first place medal5. Squeaky has developed respect for Gretchen.
13 “Pandora’s Box” & “Loo Wit the Firekeeper” REVIEW PAGE 7“Do not trust the gods. And beware especially of Zeus and anything he may send you.”Hera, the wife of Zeus, gave her the gift of curiosity.The myth explains how all that was evil, sad, and hurtful entered the world.Hera, the wife of Zeus5. “Zeus ordered Hephaestus, the smith and artisan of the gods, to make a woman…”
14 6. Zeus, the lord of Olympus 7. Aphrodite8. Epimetheus, the slow-witted brother of Prometheus9. The Creator10. The Creator changed the chiefs into Mount Adams and Mount Hood.
15 “Forgive My Guilt” REVIEW PAGE 8 His conscience will not allow him to forget the pitiful cries of the wounded birds even long after they have gone.Somebody wanted to practice hunting birds, so he shot the wings off of two birds. But he felt guilty when they didn’t die, and he had to hear their tormented cries, so he asks nature to forgive him.3. Simile and Personification
16 Point of ViewREVIEW PAGE 8Point of view - the vantage point from which a story is told2. Narrator – the voice that tells the story3. First person – the narrator is a character in the story, uses the pronouns “I” and “me”, and shares his or her view of other characters.4. Third person limited – the narrator is NOT a character in the story but is an outside observer. They focus on the thoughts and feelings of ONE character.5. Third person omniscient – the narrator is NOT a character in the story but is an outside observer. They know the thoughts, feelings, and opinions of ALL characters in the story.
17 Point of View6. Nancy was tired, and she just wanted to sleep. Peggy was full of energy and she was ready to hit the jogging trail. It was weird how the twins were different that morning.Third-person omniscient7. The sun was shining brightly. I was ready for the big sailing trip with my dad. We got the boat ready to launch. I was so excited I could sing for joy. First-person8. The horrible little girl screamed at her mom. Her mom was so frustrated she did not know what to do. She felt guilty punishing her daughter, but she felt bad for letting her be wild in the store. Third-person limited
18 Plot1. Exposition – the author introduces the setting and the characters and also reveals the story’s conflict.2. Rising Action – the part of the story that introduces the obstacles and builds suspense.3. Climax – the turning point of the story. In this part of the story, the climax is intense.4. Falling Action – the part of the story where the author reveals the result of the climax. It eases the tension and shows how the main conflict is resolved.5. Resolution – the part of the story that reveals the final outcome and ties up loose ends.
19 MythologyReview p91. Why were myths created?A link to religion or culture, to explain nature, to entertain, to teach about life and the mysteries of the universe.2. Name 5 characteristics of mythology:They feature gods and goddesses, focus on humans with flaws, portray the deeds of heroes, reveal the results of good or bad behavior, and they represent life’s dark forces as monsters. Heroes and their deeds are often a part of mythology. Myths are handed down by word of mouth.3. Tell how gods/goddesses are like humans.They are born into families and feel emotions, such as anger, jealousy, and joy.4. Tell how gods/goddesses are NOT like humans.They have divine powers and they are immortal.
20 5. Identify these mythological characters: Pandora:Zeus had Hephaestus make Pandora to give the Epimetheus as a gift. He wanted to do this to punish Epimetheus for helping his brother Prometheus give fire to humans. Pandora released evil into the world of humans.Prometheus:With his brother’s help, Prometheus gave the gift of fire to humans. He was punished by Zeus by being chained to a rock and having an eagle tear at his liver each day. He warned his brother not to trust Zeus.Hera:Queen of the Olympians. She was married to Zeus.Aphrodite:Goddess of love, desire and beauty. Wife of Hephaestus.
21 Hephaestus:Only god to be physically ugly. He is the god of fire and forge. Married to Aphrodite. He made Pandora for Zeus.Epimetheus:Titan. Accepted the gift of Pandora from Zeus. Also helped Prometheus bring fire to mankind.Hermes:Messenger to all the other gods. He wears winged sandals and a winged hat. He is the guide for the dead to go to the underworld. He delivered Pandora to Epimetheus.Zeus:King of all the gods. The thunderbolt is his weapon. He is married to Hera.Athena:Goddess of reason and wisdom, arts, and literature. Daughter of Zeus. She was Zeus’s favorite child.
22 PoetryReview p101. What is a stanza? A division in poetry equivalent to a paragraph in prose.2. What is rhyme scheme? A pattern of end rhyme noted by assigning a letter of the alphabet, beginning with a, to each line. Lines that rhyme are given the same letter.3. What is end rhyme? The occurrence of similar or identical sounds at the end of two or more lines.4. What is internal rhyme? Rhyme that occurs within a single line of poetry.
23 Conflict 1. What is conflict? A struggle between two opposing forces. Review p101. What is conflict? A struggle between two opposing forces.2. What is internal conflict? This is the kind of conflict that takes place within the self or character. An example is when a character is struggling over a difficult decision.3. What is external conflict? This is the kind of conflict that involves a struggle between a character and an outside force.
24 4. Name the 4 types of conflict and give a short example of each 4. Name the 4 types of conflict and give a short example of each. Examples include:character vs. character – a character confronts his friend when he learns he has been betrayed.character vs. society – a character faces poor working conditions.character vs. nature – a character faces a blinding snow storm.character vs. self – a character must decide if he should turn in a friend breaking the law.
25 “The Treasure of Lemon Brown” Review p10He is failing math.2. Greg wants to play basketball for the Scorpions.3. To an abandoned tenement house.4. He encounters Lemon Brown. Some thugs come and try to steal Lemon’s treasure from him.5. A beat up harmonica and some old newspaper clippings.6. He keeps it.
26 “The Medicine Bag” To visit Grandpa on the reservation. Review p12To visit Grandpa on the reservation.2. He makes them believe is more like the Indians on TV.3. He faints.4. Foremost to pass the medicine bag to Martin. Secondly, he is lonely and would like to see how/where they live.5. Symbolizes the family history, culture, and heritage to be passed to each generation. Literally it is a leather pouch containing a piece of iron shale, a pebble from the butte, and a leaf of sacred sage.
27 The Hitchhiker 1. Describe Ronald Adams. Review p121. Describe Ronald Adams.…a 36 year old man, unmarried, tall, dark, with a black mustache.2. What are the statements his mother says that shows foreshadowing?…Mother tells Adams not to pick up strangers.3. What happens on the Brooklyn Bridge?…he is killed in an automobile accident.4. Describe the scene at the train track.…The hitchhiker beckons Ronald to cross the tracks at the same time that a train is coming.5. What does Adams find out when he calls his mother?…That he had been killed on the Brooklyn Bridge automobile accident – he is dead!
28 Frederick Douglass Review Questions: Review p13 & 141. Frederick Douglas was asked to speak at what national celebration?The 4th of July Celebration2. What was his internal conflict about speaking at this celebration?How could he speak about the joys of being free when ‘he’ or so many Americans (slaves) were not free?Douglass contrasts the tumultuous joy of the nation with the mournful cry of the millions. Who are these millions of people?Enslaved Black AmericansDouglass feels that there is a disparity between the free people of the nation and the slaves. Because the slaves are still in bondage, he calls this celebration a _________.fraud
29 A device that is posed, not to elicit a specific answer, but rather to encourage the listener to consider a message or viewpoint.rhetorical question6. AphorismAn original thought, spoken or written in a laconic (concise) and memorable form.Example of an aphorism:“Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country?” - JFKor “You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.” Abraham Lincoln
30 7. ParallelismSimilarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses.Examples of parallelism --- (all of these are from JFK’s inaugural speech)“… born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage …”“… we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe …”“… Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle …”
31 8. Commonplace assertion A statement that many people assume to be true, but may or may not be true.Examples – from Frederick Douglas’s speech“There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven that does not know that slavery is wrong for him.”- from our red literature bookone bad apple can spoil the bunch