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Chapter 22 South Asia and the Middle East Nations of South Asia Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East Nation Building in the Middle East: Three Case Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 South Asia and the Middle East Nations of South Asia Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East Nation Building in the Middle East: Three Case Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 South Asia and the Middle East Nations of South Asia Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East Nation Building in the Middle East: Three Case Studies The Middle East and the World Activity: Terrorism

2 Nations of South Asia Independence and Partition After WW2, India would be a country of 2 ethnic/religious groups: Hindus and Muslims ◦Two Nations ◦ Muslims insisted on their own state, Pakistan ◦ Convinced Britain to PARTITION (divide) region ◦ 1947 – India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim) created ◦Tragedy Unfold ◦ 1947 – millions of Hindus and Muslims crossed borders ◦ Centuries of mistrust (egged on by British) erupted ◦ Hindus slaughtered Muslims, Muslims slaughtered Hindus ◦ Estimates are that about 1 million were killed, 10 million immigrated ◦ Gandhi, horrified by the violence, pled for peace ◦ 1-30-48 Gandhi shot and killed ◦ His death cast dishonor on extremists and ended the worst of the violence. But tensions continued

3 India: World’s Largest Democracy Unity & Diversity ◦Built on tradition of British government, Indians united behind Congress party. Nation deeply divided. Up to Congress party to rule ◦India divided by regional loyalties, different languages ◦Federal System set up dividing power between national government and more regional local governments ◦15 “official” languages recognized, 35 regional languages as well The “Nehru Dynasty” ◦Next 40, a member of the Nehru family led India ◦Separated government and religion (Congress party) ◦BJP (Bharatiya Janata party) increasing in power, wants to intertwine government actions and Hindu principles Ongoing Divisions ◦Regional divisions caused ongoing tensions ◦1992 – BJP supported the destruction of a mosque believed to be on a Hindu religious site – sparks rioting in the streets of India ◦Sikhs pushed for an independent state in NW India. Leader of India, Indira Gandhi assassinated after sending troops to NW India. This ignited battles between the Sikhs and Hindus

4 Economic Growth & Challenges Industry & Agriculture ◦The British left India with railroads/transportation ◦India built on that (dams, heavy industry) ◦Development very unequal (cities helped, rural areas left behind) ◦Gov’t invested in education to drive economic growth (boys not girls) ◦India used “green revolution” to increase food production dramatically, only large landowners could afford the new technology The Population Issue ◦Rapid population growth followed economic growth (x4 since indep.) ◦New farm technology eliminated millions of farm jobs, people go to the overcrowded cities (not enough sewer, water, etc) ◦Slums become the norm ◦Gov’t did push family planning, but not like China ◦Most Indians saw children as an economic resource Economic Reform ◦India forced to reform to deal with population/jobs/living conditions ◦Turned from socialism to market economy and has become a significant player in the world economy

5 Social Change Reforming the CASTE System ◦Traditional culture in India was based on a “CASTE” system, levels of society, which were unbreakable ◦Those at the bottom, the Untouchables, were treated horrendously ◦Gandhi pushed for reform. Banned discrimination against the “Harijan” ◦Deep prejudices remained – higher casts continued to get into the better schools and got the better jobs ◦The government tried to encourage businesses to hired “harijan” but huge protests by the higher castes blocked those reforms Women ◦Women, through education, began to get better jobs, serve in the government, gain legal and educational equality ◦Women in lower castes received little/no education and thus had little hope for a better life ◦Women have formed organizations to fight for better treatment of all women in India

6 India Caste System Brahman Priests Kshatriya ruler, warrior, landowner Vaishya merchants Shudra artisans, agriculturalists Harijan "outside" the caste system(once known as "untouchables")

7 Pakistan & Bangladesh Pakistan faced MANY problems with independence Power struggles, lack of resources, & ethnic rivalries ◦A DIVIDED NATION  Pakistan divided into an East and West section, separated by India  Peoples were Muslim, but culture/language differed (Bengalis & Punjabs)  Bengalis were the majority, but the Punjabs controlled the government and economy  1971 – Bengalis broke away and created Bangladesh from East Pakistan  The Pakistan army was sent in to crush the rebellion  Millions of Bengalis fled the warzone into India, India responded by attacking Pakistan in Bangladesh, defeating the Pakistanis/Punjabs ◦GOVERNEMNT  A new government was formed in Pakistan (Z.A. Bhutto)  Bhutto will be overthrown and executed by Pakistani military. Order is restored  Eventually, a civilian government will be formed. Bhutto daughter will be elected leader  By 1999 – Muslim fundamentalists demanded Pakistan take control of disputed territory of Kashmir (between India and Pakistan)  Widespread corruption and economic woes plague government  Military will “dismiss” civilian government, suspended constitution to “save the country”. Promised to reform the economy, end corruption and restore a stable government

8 Pakistan & Bangladesh ◦ECONOMY ◦ Moved to improve agr. –distibuted lands, new crops, irrigation ◦ Built dams and cleared lands, but at a high environmental cost ◦ DEFORESTATION: destruction of forest lands – caused severe flooding ◦ Modernized industries – mix of private/public ownership ◦ Borrowed heavily to finance improvements – DEBT SERVICE takes 40% of nation’s yearly budget ◦TRIALS OF BANGLADESH ◦ 1971 – struggles to rise out of poverty ◦ Large population + low lying (often flooded) lands cause issues ◦ Most of 50 million live at or below poverty line ◦ Relief from foreign nations helps, but not enough ◦ 1990’s – foreign investment encouraged (cheap labor) ◦ Human Rights groups watch closely, often cheap labor also means poor treatment of the workers, especially child labor

9 South Asia and the World India and Pakistan have followed their own paths ◦India welcomed help from both superpowers, remained neutral ◦Pakistan felt threatened by India and USSR to the north so accepted aid from the US ◦India, to counter this, signed a pact with the USSR ◦Since 1990’s, both have sought alliances with western nations Conflict Over Kashmir ◦Region between India/Pakistan a problem ◦King sided with India, Muslim population sided with Pakistan ◦1999 – border dispute heated back up, troops sent in to defend ◦Even after that settled down, Kashmir continues to be an issue Nuclear Issue ◦India tested nuclear bomb in 1974 ◦Pakistan felt threatened, worked to develop own weapon ◦1998 – Pakistan successfully tested bomb ◦Now both are members of the “Nuclear Club”

10 South Asia and the World Afghanistan (where empires go to die) ◦1979 – Soviet Troops invaded Afghanistan ◦US send aid to those resisting Soviet domination ◦Soviets forced to withdraw after years of costly fighting ◦Struggle for control went on ◦Taliban (an extremist group) gained control, imposed harsh Islamic rule ◦Taliban harbored/trained other extremists (Osama bin Laden) ◦US insisted government turn over bin Laden – or else ◦US invaded in 2011, to try to capture bin Laden., Still there Sri Lanka ◦Ethnic tensions led guerilla forces to fight against their government ◦Tamil rebels fought for equal treatment, then separate nations ◦1980’s – R. Gandhi sent in troops to smash rebels ◦Outraged, the rebels assassinated R. Gandhi in 1991 ◦Violence has continued

11 Group Assignment As a group ◦Answer questions #3-6 on p. 585

12 Shaping the Modern Middle East The “Middle East” refers to the region between Europe and the SE Asia DIVERSITY & NATIONALISM ◦Religious & Cultural Diversity  Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all emerged from the Middle East  Different sects within each religion add to the diversity  30+ languages, dozens of minority groups, each trying for autonomy  Muslims, like Christians belong to different national groups, each with their own cultures, traditions, beliefs ◦Winning Independence  Britain controlled the Middle East after WW1  Opposed to this, some won freedom (Iraq in1932)  The Pan-Arab dream of one Arab state as each pursued own goals  Common heritage linked Arabs across borders ◦Colonial Legacy  Despite independence, Arab nations dependent on West economically  Capital/technology needed to modernize, markets needed for goods  Key goal was to become independent of the West  Imperialism also caused problems ◦ Borders inherited ◦ Economic goals of the West not the goals of the Arabs - - - Tensions rise


14 Shaping the Middle East ◦Conflict over PALESTINE  1917 – Balfour Declaration – Jewish homeland in Palestine  Tensions in area increased (both Jewish and Palestinian)  Jewish people migrated to Palestine in hope of future homeland  After horrors of the Holocaust, US & others strongly supported idea  1947 – British drew up plans for a partitioned region – part for Jewish homeland, part for Palestine. Jews agreed, Arabs didn’t ◦The Birth of ISRAEL  1948 – Britain withdrew, Jews declared ISRAEL independent  Immediately recognized by US and USSR  Arab states launched a military attack (poorly armed, trained)  Israel won, increasing the territory they controlled  Built towns, provided services to its people,  American aid for industry, agriculture helped  Rapid progress (skilled, educated workforce) in Israel ◦The Refugee Issue  1948 – 700,000 Arabs uprooted by lost war  Refugees set up in poor camps, these become permanent settlements  Generations of Palestinians have grown up believing they were wrongfully kicked out of their lands, bitterly determined to win back their homes


16 Arab & Jew DVD What is the view point of the Jewish people they interviewed? What is the view point of the Palestinian people they interviewed? Name 3 things you learned about the Arab/Jewish dispute that you did not know before you watched this DVD

17 Political & Economic Patterns Governments ◦Most developed authoritarian governments, some who brutally suppressed their peoples once in power ◦Often, these leaders had overthrown western-backed monarchs ◦Economies & social conditions improved for those in power ◦Democracies only in Turkey and Israel (multiparty) ◦In both, minorities parties were discriminated against Impact of Oil ◦1973 OPEC oil embargo showed the power of these nations ◦Oil used as a weapon/tool to gain political or economically ◦Region is now divided between oil-rich and oil-poor nations Water Resources ◦Region has limited water supply, believed to be the next “oil” ◦Increasing populations, rising standard of living means increase in demand ◦DESALINIZATION by oil-rich nations has helped ◦Dams have caused many problems (diverting waters) Economic Policies ◦Many tried socialism to fix problems they believe caused by capitalism ◦Still dependant on outside world – loans – to fund their nations ◦Grave economic problems face these nations in the future  Growing debt* Large % of poverty* Oil a limited supply

18 Islamic Revival Western Influences ◦West urged Middle Eastern nations to modernized (westernize) ◦It West, this meant keeping government and religion SEPARATE ◦Many did reform, and their economies grew ◦But still, life for many was still very hard, did not improve ◦People began protesting/resisting when leaders did not solve problems Call for Reform ◦1970’s – many called for reforms (dictatorial leaders, repression) ◦Economic problems blamed on “western ways”, more calls for reform ◦Islamic reformers wanted to apply Islamic principles to their nations ◦This appealed to the poor & educated Muslims alike Impact ◦By 1990’s, Islamic Reform had spread throughout the Middle East ◦Iran – overthrew Shah and set up Sharia based government ◦In other nations, extremists challenged those in power, used violence (terrorism) to push for political/social change ◦Heated debated in most countries about the path for the future, believed their god, Allah, needed to be at the center of things, both socially and politically ◦Some even called for the governments to be led by religious leaders

19 Women in the MuslimWorld Conditions vary for women in the Middle East ◦In many countries, women have the right to vote, work, education ◦In others, women are limited, legally and religiously, from these things Return to the HEJAB ◦The traditional Islamic head covering is making a comeback ◦In some regions, it is required. Laws forbid women in public without ◦In others, it is by choice. Worn as an expression of their devotion to Muslim values and practices Continuing Issues ◦Women/societies continue to struggle with these issues ◦Some see limits on their choices/opportunities and argue against ◦Others see as ways to embrace/enforce adherence to Islam ◦Under Sharia, women hold powerful positions within the family ◦Others see laws restricting women from realizing their pull potential and their ability to contribute to the vitality of their nation

20 Case Studies In groups of 3-4 Read pages 592-596 Fill in handout about the 3 countries ◦Turkey ◦Egypt ◦Iran As you read, identify what happened in each country in these areas: ◦Government ◦Economy ◦Conflicts/Issues

21 TURKEY Kamil Atatuk ( secular government ) Government & Economy ◦Struggled to build a stable economy ◦Irrigated Agriculture, promoted industry (trade) ◦Trying to join E.U. Tragic Earthquake (1999) ◦Rapid urbanization and poverty means many buildings poorly built ◦Huge earthquake (and aftershocks) devastated much of W. Turkey ◦Government response was slow and inadequate Conflicts ( Turks and Kurds ) ◦Turkey tried to force Kurds to abandon culture, language, identity  Kurds revolted ◦Cyprus (dispute with Greece) ◦Politically divided between secular and religious gov’t believers

22 EGYPT Nassar – became THE leader of the Arab world in the 1950’s ◦Set out to moderize Egypt and end western domination ◦Outspoken enemy of Israel – Suez Canal was property of Egypt Economic Development ◦Nassar turned to SOCIALISM with limited success ◦Soviet helped built Aswan Dam on Nile, creating 2m acres of farmland ◦Environmental damage was huge Sadat ◦Opened Egypt to foreign investment (away from Soviets) ◦Peace deal with Israel returned Sinai Peninsula to Egypt ◦Peace was good overall, but life for average Egyptian did not change Continuing Issues ◦Sadat assassinated in 1981 by extremists angry with Israeli deal ◦Mubarek faced serious problems, population boom ◦Reformers wanted more reform (democracy) and extremists wanted return to Islamic ways

23 IRAN Nationalism & Oil – Deals with west ◦US/GB invested billions to drill for oil (Shah of Iran) ◦Shah pushed for modernization, including rights for women ◦Supported by Army, Shah stayed in power for over 25 years Islamic Revolution (1979) ◦Ayatollah Khomeini led revolution against Shah of Iran ◦Theocracy (government led by religious leaders) set up ◦Laws based on Islamic religious beliefs

24 IRAN Foreign Policy ◦Denounced WEST ◦Held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days ◦Urged other Muslims to overthrow their governments Moderate Voices ◦Khomeini’s death bought a little change, but not much ◦Recently, a moderate was elected and is now trying to slowly change Impact ◦Not much changed for the average Iranian ◦Corruption, poverty, unemployment and other problems remain ◦Leaders are trying to balance traditional ways with a want to modernize their economy

25 Superpower Rivalries BOTH wanted access to OIL ◦( Muslim nations mistrusted both ) US ◦Threatened to stop money when communism arose in the late 40’s ◦Strongly supported any leader who was anti-USSR (Iran) USSR ◦“Client States” – those dependent on the USSR support ◦Supported/encouraged any country that was looking at communism

26 WEAPONS PILE UP Both SUPERPOWERS sold arms to their allies in the region ◦US supported Israel militarily ◦USSR supported Arab nations Weapons of Mass Destruction of major concern ◦Israel believed to have developed an atomic bomb ◦Arab nations rushed to also have “the bomb”  Saddam Hussein – Iraq –  Chemical/Biological weapons next option  Large stockpiles of WMD’s

27 Arab-Israeli Conflict OCCUPIED TERRITORIES ◦West Bank & Gaza Strip – building settlements ◦Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) PALESTINIAN RESISTANCE ◦PLO – Palestinian Liberation Organization  ** 1972 Munich Olympics ◦Intifadas – young Palestinians protesting Israeli control/laws  Bloody street fighting PEACE EFFORTS ◦1978 - peace treaty between Israel & Egypt – Sinai Peninsula ◦1990 – Jordan signed peace treaty with Israel ◦1993 – US brokers talks between Israel and PLO ◦ Many disagreements over DETAILS ◦Current – 2 State Solution ◦ Right of Return ◦ Borders ◦ Non-aggression/no use of terrorism

28 Civil War in Lebanon Growing Tensions – delicate balance between groups ◦Growing number of Palestinian refugees strained resources ◦PLO & Hizbullah ◦Muslim population grows to outnumber other groups-takes control Years of Violence ◦Civil war between various groups for control of Lebanon ◦Lawlessness led to massacres on all sides ◦UN peacekeeping force restored very fragile peace Rebuilding (1990’s) ◦PLO forced out of S. Lebanon and peace restored ◦Economy began to rebuild ◦Lebanon ready to become leading nation in Middle East ◦Syria still had great influence over parts of Lebanon, used to cause/stir up issues with Israel

29 2 PERSIAN GULF WARS 1 st Gulf War – ◦1980’s – Iraq & Iran – 2 sects of Islam  Iraq had superior weapons, forces (even poison gas)  Iran had fanaticism on its side (spread the revolution)  8 years of war was devastating for both sides (human and economic) 2 nd Gulf War – (1990 – Kuwait) ◦Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, claiming historic control ◦Kuwait asked US for help – US saw as threat to allies (S.A.) and access to oil ◦Coalition of countries (mostly US) landed in Kuwait and pushed Iraq out 3 rd Gulf War – (after 9-11) ◦Iraq invaded to stop Hussein from harboring terrorists or using WMD’s in the region ◦Hussein removed from power ◦Battle for control of Iraq continues, after US withdrawl

30 Uncertainties Continue Middle East is still an area of UNREST Clashes between religious & secular groups Competition for limited resources Fight for control of oil riches Fundamentalism vs. pro-democracy movement (Arab Spring in Egypt, Syria, other nations)

31 The Middle East and the World The Middle East is STILL A STRATEGIC REGION Oil, Vital location make it a player in world issues The Cold War and After ◦Superpower Rivalries – each tried to line up allies in the Middle East  1947 – US intervened in Turkey (aid) to stop a communist takeover  Support the Shah of Iran (anti-communist dictator) for years  Egypt “non-aligned” for years, but took much aid from USSR  Iraq, Syria and Libya were “client states” of the USSR for decades  Most of the Arab world grew to mistrust US because it propped up leaders loyal to the US but not good for their own native people ◦Weapons Pile Up - both sides sold arms to the region  Israel-Arab dispute –US backed Israel, USSR backed the Arabs  With each Israel-Arab war, each side rearmed their allies with newer weapons  Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD’s) became a concern as both sides either received them or developed them

32 The Arab-Israeli Conflict Wars in 1948, 1956, 1967 & 1973 increased tensions The Occupied Territories – War territory won by Israel ◦Syria (Golan Heights), Jordan (West Bank), and Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) ◦Israel refused to give up territories until countries recognized Israel’s right to exist ◦The government helped Israel settlers move into disputed territories Palestinian Resistance – refugees dreamed of return ◦PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) formed with the goal of the destruction of Israel (Yasir Arafat) and a return of Palestine ◦For years PLO guerillas have attacked Israeli’s in their homes ◦Bombings, hijackings, and the massacre of Israeli athletes in 1972 ◦These attacks made Israel resist negotiating with the PLO, Palestinians ◦1980-200’s – INTIFADAS – armed uprisings in Israeli occupied regions ◦Israeli troops fought back – 1000’s of Palestinians killed ◦Palestinian towns sealed off, crippling their economies ◦Palestinian suffering increased as did their anger and bitterness

33 The Arab-Israeli Conflict Peace Efforts ◦Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in exchange for peace ◦Jordan and Israel have signed a peace treaty since the end of USSR ◦PLO & Israel have held direct talks over the past 20 years  Gaza & West Bank put under Palestinian control (Israel withdraw discussed) ◦Despite this, tensions continue  Radical groups Hezbullah, Hamas continue terrorist attacks on Israel  Some Israelis willing to give land for peace, others are not Continuing Issues ◦Many issues still divide the Palestinians and Israelis  “Right to Return”– can the millions of displaced Palestinians return?  Israel Settlements – do the Israelis get to keep the land they were given  City of Jerusalem – sacred to both sides

34 Two Wars in the Gulf Border disputes, oil wealth, foreign intervention and ambitious rulers have all increased the tensions of region Iraq (under Saddam Hussein) ◦Iran-Iraq war – Iraq had superior weapons, used poison gas to win  War dragged on for 8 years, ended in stalemate, disastrous for both sides ◦Attacked Kuwait for port for oil  US saw as threat to region, especially Saudi Arabia (an ally)  Pres. G Bush created a coalition of nations to react, repel Iraq  Under UN banner, Iraq pushed back & Kuwait returned to their people  As they retreated, Iraq blew up thousands of oil wells, environmental terror  Saddam Hussein was allowed to remain in power, a problem that would later have to be readdressed  Economic sanctions placed on Iraq, Hussein, to stop actions deemed as threats ◦9-11  Iraq accused of harboring terrorists and building WMD’s  US invaded in 2003, to stop Hussein from using WMD’s (which were never found)

35 Uncertainties Continue 9-11 changed the region forever ◦Al Qaida is not a nation to deal with, it is an idea that crosses borders ◦Known al Qaida cells in 60+ countries ◦Most Muslim leaders condemn the terrorist acts, it has been hugely difficult to find and root out the terrorists Nationalism is resurfacing in many countries as they overthrow dictators ◦Groups considered “terrorists” by the West (Hezbullah, Hamas, al Qaida) have loyal followers because they supply support to the poor (schools & hospitals) and teach a rejection of western ways ◦Balance between secularism and religion tips back and forth

36 Chapter 22 Essays (answer 2) Explain what the main conflict between the Indians (Hindus) and Pakistanis (Muslim) in the region both in the past and now. Explain what the main conflict between the Palestinian people and Jewish people in Israel both in the past and now. Explain how terror can be used to try to bring political change. Why/How do some see this as terrorism and others as fighting for their freedom

37 Ch 22 Need to Knows ◦India & Pakistan  Hindu v. Muslim  Caste System ◦Israel  Palestinians v. Jewish  Wars/Occupied Territories ◦Current Conflicts  9-11  Wars in Iraq ◦VOCABULARY  AyatollahHarijan Debt ServicesHejab DeforestationIntifada DesalinizationKibbutz Federal SystemTheocracy

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