Presentation on theme: "Modern Middle East Notes MR. HARDY RMS IB Middle School 2013-2014."— Presentation transcript:
Modern Middle East Notes MR. HARDY RMS IB Middle School 2013-2014
Aim: What events led to the ongoing conflict between Jews & Muslims? Do Now: How would your life be different if you lived in a place that suffered from weekly terrorist attacks? HW: Come up with a realistic peace plan for the Arab-Israeli Conflict.
Sources of Modern Middle East Conflict Religious Differences – Different religions – Sunnis (leader is a member of the Muslim community) vs. Shia’s (Direct descendant of Muhammad) Ethnic Groups – Persians (Iran) vs. Arabs (Iraq) Nationalism – Some ethnic groups wish for an independent nation instead of a multi- ethnic one – Kurds- mountain people from Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey (Multiple violent struggles for independence) Fundamentalism – Belief in following your religion directly, as outline by holy text – Theocratic Government- religion based – Example- 1979, Shi’ite leader Khomeini took over Iran, ended all westernization and instilled fundamentalist beliefs over the government and country
BRITAIN & THE BALFOUR DECLARATION During WWI the British wanted the U.S. to join the war on their side. They thought if they supported the concept of Zionism, a Jewish homeland in Palestine, that influential Jewish Americans might persuade the U.S. to join the war on the Allied side. The Balfour Declaration of 1917 affirmed the British Government’s belief that Zionism should be supported. Palestine was controlled by the British, after the defeat of the Ottoman Turks in WWI. They officially took control of Palestine in 1922. Controlled by Great Britain, following WWII, Jewish refugees fled Europe for safety, many immigrated to Palestine
20 th Century Modern East History Palestine- Arab region lived on by Jewish people for over 2000 years 1945 Jewish terrorist organizations began to kill British soldiers in Palestine. 1946 the Zionist terrorist organization, Irgun, bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, headquarters of the British military in Palestine, killing 91 people. 1947- United Nations involved to end disagreement with traditional Arab population and recent Jewish immigrants The U.N. divides Palestine in to two parts – Part 1 Arab – Part 2 Jewish 1948- Israel becomes independent state for Jewish people Arab—Israeli Wars – Arab nations, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia & Syria declare war on Israel. – They did not agree with the creation of the Jewish state – Israel wins the first of multiple wars (1948, 1967, and 1973)
I. Reason for conflict A. Palestinians – Arabs who had lived in the area of Israel for 2000 years forced to move B. Palestinians that remained forced to live in camps to make room for Jews C. Jerusalem is holy land to 3 major faiths D. Jews and Muslims each want to control Jerusalem
Arab- Israeli Wars Over 700,000 Palestinian Arab refugees fled to other countries during the wars Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)- goal est. an independent Palestinian State Throughout wars, constant shifts of territory between Israelis and Palestinians Peace Attempts – 1979- Egypt makes peace with Israel – 1993- Palestinian and Israel peace agreement signed PLO recognizes Israel as a state Israel gave territory to the Palestinians
C. Israel Puts up a wall around Palestinian areas to prevent terrorist from moving into Israeli areas
Iran- Iraq War OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – Made up of Arabian Peninsula countries who wished to control the global economy of oil prices and shipment, 1960 Long lasting dispute over who controlled oil rich territory Revolution in Iran- People upset with the Shah (king) Looked to new leader- Khomeini (religious leader) Shah overthrown Changed to Islamic Conservative Laws 1980- Iraq invaded Iran (Led by Saddam Hussein) 8 year war – Over 1 million people died 1988- cease fire agreement signed (written by the United Nations) – No clear winner
Persian Gulf War 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait for the oil supply Saddam Hussein (Iraq’s leader) led the invasion United Nations- trade embargo to stop Iraq from profiting January 16 th, 1991- multi- nation missile attack began on Iraq US military titled the operation “Desert Storm” to help Kuwait February 24 th - Ground attack begins – Lasted 100 hours Iraq surrendered – Saddam’s forces left Kuwait – Both Iraq and Kuwait suffered much destruction from the attacks
Do in Class Construct a realistic peace plan for the Arab- Israeli conflict. Do it in a numerical format, Article 1, Article 2, Article 3, etc. Come up with at least five issues you need to address.
Homework In your notebook, Describe the similarities and differences between Islam, Judaism and Christianity. What are some reasons that make it so difficult for these religions to get along? Complete the worksheet, The Arab-Israeli Conflict.