Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire The capital of the Eastern Roman empire was changed to Byzantium to provide political, economic and military advantages. It was then."— Presentation transcript:
The Byzantine Empire The capital of the Eastern Roman empire was changed to Byzantium to provide political, economic and military advantages. It was then renamed Constantinople by Constantine.
Constantinople What military advantages do you see with this location?
Location of Constantinople Protection of the eastern frontier Distance from Germanic invasions in the Western Empire Crossroads of trade Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordered by natural harbors
Its location was a crossroads for trade connecting Europe with Asia and the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea.
Role of Constantinople Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman (Muslim) conquest Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture Center of trade Istanbul Market
Byzantine families continued to educate their children in Roman and Greek grammar and literature through monasteries and private tutors, preserving Greco-Roman culture. Meanwhile, in the west, Rome had been conquered by Germanic tribes that had no written language. As civilization declined in the west, it continued to flourish as the New Rome in Constantinople. Greco-Roman Traditions
Justinian came to power in 527 AD as an absolute ruler As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe. Became known as Justinian’s Code. Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity. Reconquest of former Roman territories in an effort to restore New Rome to earlier glory Expansion of trade
Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture. Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is imperial patronage? It means that the emperor supported and paid for beautiful pieces of art and the construction of buildings.
The Byzantines used domes and columns in their architecture. Christianity was the theme of Byzantine art and mosaics were used to show religious ceremonies.
Byzantine Art and Architecture Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power Icons (religious images) Mosaics in public and religions structures Hagia Sophia (a Byzantine domed church) Icon Can you think of 5 adjectives to describe this artwork?
Hagia SophiaWhat elements of Roman Architecture do you see?
Byzantine Culture Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) Greek Orthodox Christianity Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries
The cultural and political differences between the eastern (Byzantine) and western Roman Empires weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division in 1054. Western Church Centered in Rome Farther from the seat of power after Constantinople Became the capital Use of Latin Language in liturgy Authority of the Pope accepted Practices such as celibacy accepted Eastern Church Centered in Constantinople Close to the seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Greek language in the liturgy Authority of the Patriarch accepted Icons prohibited – Iconoclasts destroyed images Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox
Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture and trade. Why? http://www.drshirley.org/geog/map30c_rus.gif Kievan Rus around 1050 CE
Traders from Kiev (present day Ukraine) traveled down the Dnieper River to trade in the city of Constantinople. These traders were Vikings and Slavs (people of the region north of the Black Sea). The word “Slave” comes from Slav as many were sold in Constantinople as slaves. Kiev would be one of Russia’s earliest civilizations
Dnieper River Constantinople which is Istanbul today
Influence of Byzantine Culture on Eastern Europe and Russia Trade routes between the Black Sea and Baltic Sea Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe Adoption of Greek alphabet for the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic Alphabet) Church architecture and religious art
Baltic and Black Sea Trade Routes http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/history/undergraduate/modules/hi127/programme/western/late_medieval_trade_routes.jpg
Cyril and his brother Methodius developed a new alphabet while trying to teach the Bible to the Slavs. The Slavs had no written language so Cyril and Methodius worked to give them an alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is still used today.
The Cyrillic Alphabet http://www.pbs.org/weta/faceofrussia/reference/img/cyrillic- alphabet.gif http://www.davidgoodwin.net/albums/album30/DSCF1565.sized.jpg
The use of Domes in church architecture was adopted from the Byzantines and were modified – Russian domes are onion-shaped.