Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire. Byzantine After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Empire becomes prominent. Byzantine empire (Eastern Empire) produced."— Presentation transcript:
Byzantine After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Empire becomes prominent. Byzantine empire (Eastern Empire) produced a brilliant civilization blending Greek, Christian, and other Mediterranean influences.
Constantinople Emperor Constantine had moved capital of empire from Rome to Byzantium (where it was renamed Constantinople after him). It was the seat of Byzantine power until the Ottoman Conquest Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture
The location of Constantinople Great Location: Built on a peninsula overlooking the Bosporus (connecting Black Sea to Aegean) Protected from attack on 3 sides by the sea, and on the land by a great wall Could control shipping, which meant that they controlled trade in their area (trade crossroads) Distance from the Germanic invaders in the West
Emperor Justinian Emperor from 527- 565 Used the wealth of Constantinople to reconquer most of the Mediterranean Which resulted in the expansion of trade However, he left the Byzantine Empire nearly broke by the time he died due to all the battles Under his reign the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture & prosperity
Emperor Justinian Justinian collected, revised, and organized the laws of ancient Rome Justinian’s Code Did not equally apply to everyone (= status) Justinian’s Code has influenced legal thinkers throughout history Served as legal basis for the law codes of Europe
Byzantine Art & Architecture Religious themes dominated art Mosaics in public & religious structures Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power Icons (religious images) Hagia Sophia (a Byzantine domed church) Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture.
Byzantine Culture Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) Greek Orthodox Christianity Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries
Byzantine Society At the heart of society was the emperor (considered both the deputy of Christ on Earth and his co-ruler) Hierarchy: Emperor, Nobles/ Aristocrats, everyone else In earlier times = based on merit As time went on = based on wealth & heredity
Byzantine Society Women: Roman idea that women should be subject to the authority of men Christian notion that women, as daughters of Eve, were a source of temptation and trouble and should be strictly supervised Women were educated, but could not leave home without a male escort. Had to protect their virtue. Lived in the gynaeceum (women’s apartments).
East v. West The cultural and political differences between the eastern and western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division (schism). Iconoclast movement = should we use icons of God/ Jesus, or are is worshipping icons idolatry
Eastern (Orthodox) Church Centered in Constantinople Close to seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Greek language in the liturgy Led by the pentarchy (Pope + 4 patriarchs) Eventually led by only 1 person = the patriarch of Constantinople
Western Church Centered in Rome Farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Latin language in the liturgy
Division between Western & Eastern Churches Authority of the Pope eventually accepted in the West Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West
The Macedonian Era, 867-1056 By the 800s, the Byzantine Empire had endured a century of devastating wars, religious upheavals, and great territorial losses Culture had become uniformly more Greek Towns declined in size as they turned to farming
The Macedonian Era Golden Age of Byzantine Culture Gradually improved the conditions of the peasants Enhanced the importance of the monarchy Captured the Bulgarian kingdom in the North
The Macedonian Era Began to decline in the 1000s After a series of weak, incompetent rulers, the military & aristocracy started to control the emperor 1 women took power = ZOE Put 3 husbands on the throne. Killed her 1 st one, & maybe the 2 nd. After that, she married again & ruled jointly with him & her sister Theodora.
The End of an Empire Continuing strife between the military aristocracy & the central government weakened the empire, making it vulnerable to challenges from the outside In 1453, the Turks defeated the Byzantines
Influence of Byzantine Empire on Russia & Eastern Europe Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe Adoption of Greek alphabet to the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet) Church architecture and religious art
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