2Noun: person, place, thing, idea LOS SUSTANTIVOSNoun:person, place, thing, idea
3LOS SUSTANTIVOSA noun is a word used to identify people, places, things, or ideas.All Spanish nouns have gender; masculine or feminine.All Spanish nouns also have number; singular or plural.Spanish nouns are generally accompanied by an article.
4Nouns that refer to living things Masculine Nounsel hombre the manending in –o el chico the boyel alumno the (male) studentending in –or el director the (male) principalel profesor the (male) teacher
5Nouns that refer to living things Feminine Nounsla mujer the womanending in –a la chica the girlla alumna the (female) studentending in –ora la directora the (female) principalla profesora the (female) teacher
6Spanish nounsNouns that refer to males, like el hombre, are generally masculine and end in–o or –or.Nouns that refer to females, like la mujer, are generally feminine and end in–a and –ora.
7Spanish nounsSome nouns have almost identical masculine and feminine forms—notice the difference.la joventhe youth; the young womanla estudiantethe (female) studentel joventhe youth; the young manel estudiantethe (male) student
8Nouns that refer to nonliving things Masculine Nounsending in –o el cuaderno the notebookel horario the scheduleel número the numberel diccionario the dictionary
9Nouns that refer to nonliving things Feminine Nounsending in –a la pantalla the screenla pizarra the chalkboardla papelera the garbage canla escuela the school
10Spanish nounsBecause the gender of nouns that refer to non-living things cannot be determined by foolproof rules, you should memorize the gender of each noun you learn.
11Spanish nounsIt is helpful to memorize each noun with its corresponding article, el for masculine and la for feminine.Another reason to memorize the gender of every noun is that there are common exceptions to the rules of gender.Feminine noun ending in –ola mano (hand)Masculine noun ending in –ael mapa (map)
12Plural of nouns el chico los chicos la palabra las palabras Nouns that end in a vowel form the plural by adding –s.el chico los chicosla palabra las palabrasNouns that end in a consonant add –es.el profesor los profesoresNouns that end in –z change the –z to –c, then add –es.el lápiz los lápicesla luz las luces
13Plural of nounsYou use the masculine plural form of the noun to refer to a group that includes both males and females.1 pasajero + 2 pasajeras = 3 pasajeros2 chicos + 2 chicas = 4 chicos
15Spanish articlesEnglish often uses definite articles (the) and indefinite articles (a, an) before nouns.Spanish also has definite and indefinite articles—used much more!Spanish articles vary in form because they agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify.
16Definite articlesSpanish has four forms that are equivalent to the English definite article the. You use definite articles to refer to specific nouns.MasculineSingularel diccionariothe dictionaryPlurallos diccionariosthe dictionariesFeminineSingularla computadorathe computerPlurallas computadorasthe computers
17Indefinite articles unos amigos Singular Plural Singular Plural Spanish has four forms that are equivalent to the English indefinite article, which according to context may mean a, an, or some. You use indefinite articles to refer to unspecified persons or things.MasculineSingularun amigoa (one) friendPluralunos amigossome friendsFeminineSingularuna banderaa (one) photographPluralunas banderassome photographs
18¿el, la, los o las? _____ chico _____ chica _____ maleta ¡INTÉNTALO! Provide a definite article for each noun in the first column and an indefinite article for each noun in the second column.¿el, la, los o las?_____ chico_____ chica_____ maleta_____ cuadernos_____ lápiz_____ mujeres¿un, una, unos o unas?_____ autobús_____ escuela_____ computadora_____ hombre_____ señoras_____ lápices
19ADJ RULEAdjectives must agree in number and gender with the noun or nouns modified.
20Subject Pronouns. I, you, he, she, we, y’all, they PRONOMBRES SUJETOSSubject Pronouns.I, you, he, she, we, y’all, they
21Subject pronounsIn order to use verbs, you will need to learn about subject pronouns.A subject pronoun replaces the name or title of a person or thing and acts as the subject of a verb.In both Spanish and English, subject pronouns are divided into three groups: first person, second person, and third person.
22Singular yo tú usted (Ud.) él ella FIRST PERSON I SECOND PERSON you (familiar)usted (Ud.)you (formal)THIRD PERSONélheellashe
24Subject pronounsSpanish has two subject pronouns that mean you (singular).Use tú when addressing a friend, a family member, or a child you know well—very informalUse Usted to address a person with whom you have a formal or more distant relationship, such as a superior at work, a professor, or an older person—formal.
25Subject pronounsThe masculine plural forms nosotros, vosotros, and ellos refer to a group of males or to a group of males and females.The feminine plural forms nosotras, vosotras, and ellas can refer only to groups made up exclusively of females.
26Subject Pronouns Es un problema. It’s a problem. There is no Spanish equivalent of the English subject pronoun it. Generally it is not expressed in Spanish.Es un problema.It’s a problem.
27you are (formal); he / she is The verb ser (to be)SINGULAR FORMSyosoyI amtúeresyou are (informal)Ud. / él / ellaesyou are (formal); he / she is
28you are (formal); they are The verb ser (to be)PLURAL FORMSnosotros(as)somoswe arevosotros(as)soisyou all are (informal)Uds. / ellos / ellassonyou are (formal); they are
29¡ATENCIÓN! Marta es profesora. Marta es una profesora excelente. Unlike English, Spanish does not use the indefinite article (un, una) after ser when referring to professions, unless accompanied by an adjective or other description:Marta es profesora.Marta es una profesora excelente.
30¡INTÉNTALO! Provide the correct present forms of ser. 1. Gabriel _____2. Juan y yo (m.) _____3. Óscar y Flora _____4. Adriana _____5. las turistas _____6. el chico _____7. los conductores _____8. el señor y la señora Ruiz _____