Presentation on theme: "ESPAÑOL UNO CAPÍTULO 1 APUNTES. LOS SUSTANTIVOS Noun: person, place, thing, idea."— Presentation transcript:
ESPAÑOL UNO CAPÍTULO 1 APUNTES
LOS SUSTANTIVOS Noun: person, place, thing, idea
A noun is a word used to identify people, places, things, or ideas. All Spanish nouns have gender; masculine or feminine. All Spanish nouns also have number; singular or plural. Spanish nouns are generally accompanied by an article. LOS SUSTANTIVOS
Masculine Nouns ending in –oel chico the boy el alumno the (male) student ending in –orel director the (male) principal el profesor the (male) teacher Nouns that refer to living things el hombre the man
ending in –ala chica the girl la alumna the (female) student ending in –orala directora the (female) principal la profesora the (female) teacher Feminine Nouns la mujer the woman Nouns that refer to living things
Nouns that refer to males, like el hombre, are generally masculine and end in –o or –or. Nouns that refer to females, like la mujer, are generally feminine and end in –a and –ora. Spanish nouns
Some nouns have almost identical masculine and feminine formsnotice the difference. el joven the youth; the young man el estudiante the (male) student la joven the youth; the young woman la estudiante the (female) student Spanish nouns
ending in –oel cuaderno the notebook el horario the schedule el número the number el diccionario the dictionary Masculine Nouns Nouns that refer to nonliving things
Feminine Nouns Nouns that refer to nonliving things ending in –ala pantalla the screen la pizarra the chalkboard la papelera the garbage can la escuela the school
Because the gender of nouns that refer to non- living things cannot be determined by foolproof rules, you should memorize the gender of each noun you learn. Spanish nouns
It is helpful to memorize each noun with its corresponding article, el for masculine and la for feminine. Another reason to memorize the gender of every noun is that there are common exceptions to the rules of gender. Masculine noun ending in –a el mapa (map) Spanish nouns Feminine noun ending in –o la mano (hand)
Nouns that end in a vowel form the plural by adding –s. el chicolos chicos la palabralas palabras Nouns that end in a consonant add –es. el profesorlos profesores Nouns that end in –z change the –z to –c, then add –es. el lápizlos lápices la luz las luces Plural of nouns
You use the masculine plural form of the noun to refer to a group that includes both males and females. 1 pasajero + 2 pasajeras = 3 pasajeros 2 chicos + 2 chicas = 4 chicos Plural of nouns
LOS ARTÍCULOS Articles. the a(n), some
English often uses definite articles (the) and indefinite articles (a, an) before nouns. Spanish also has definite and indefinite articlesused much more! Spanish articles vary in form because they agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Spanish articles
Spanish has four forms that are equivalent to the English definite article the. You use definite articles to refer to specific nouns. Feminine Singular la computadora the computer Plural las computadoras the computers Masculine Singular el diccionario the dictionary Plural los diccionarios the dictionaries Definite articles
Spanish has four forms that are equivalent to the English indefinite article, which according to context may mean a, an, or some. You use indefinite articles to refer to unspecified persons or things. Masculine Singular un amigo a (one) friend Plural unos amigos some friends Feminine Singular una bandera a (one) photograph Plural unas banderas some photographs Indefinite articles
¿el, la, los o las? 1. _____ chico 2. _____ chica 3. _____ maleta 4. _____ cuadernos 5. _____ lápiz 6. _____ mujeres ¿un, una, unos o unas? 1. _____ autobús 2. _____ escuela 3. _____ computadora 4. _____ hombre 5. _____ señoras 6. _____ lápices ¡INTÉNTALO! Provide a definite article for each noun in the first column and an indefinite article for each noun in the second column.
ADJ RULE Adjectives must agree in number and gender with the noun or nouns modified.
PRONOMBRES SUJETOS Subject Pronouns. I, you, he, she, we, yall, they
In order to use verbs, you will need to learn about subject pronouns. A subject pronoun replaces the name or title of a person or thing and acts as the subject of a verb. In both Spanish and English, subject pronouns are divided into three groups: first person, second person, and third person. Subject pronouns
FIRST PERSON yo I SECOND PERSON tú you (familiar) usted (Ud.) you (formal) THIRD PERSON él he ella she Singular
FIRST PERSON nosotros we (masculine) nosotras we (feminine) SECOND PERSON vosotros you (masc., fam.) vosotras you (fem., fam) ustedes (Uds.) you (form.) THIRD PERSON ellos they (masc.) ellas they (fem.) Plural
Spanish has two subject pronouns that mean you (singular). Use tú when addressing a friend, a family member, or a child you know wellvery informal Use Usted to address a person with whom you have a formal or more distant relationship, such as a superior at work, a professor, or an older personformal. Subject pronouns
The masculine plural forms nosotros, vosotros, and ellos refer to a group of males or to a group of males and females. The feminine plural forms nosotras, vosotras, and ellas can refer only to groups made up exclusively of females. Subject pronouns
Subject Pronouns There is no Spanish equivalent of the English subject pronoun it. Generally it is not expressed in Spanish. Es un problema. Its a problem.
SINGULAR FORMS yo soy I am tú eres you are (informal) Ud. / él / ella es you are (formal); he / she is The verb ser (to be)
PLURAL FORMS nosotros(as) somos we are vosotros(as) sois you all are (informal) Uds. / ellos / ellas son you are (formal); they are The verb ser (to be)
Unlike English, Spanish does not use the indefinite article (un, una) after ser when referring to professions, unless accompanied by an adjective or other description: Marta es profesora. Marta es una profesora excelente. ¡ATENCIÓN!
1. Gabriel_____ 2. Juan y yo (m.)_____ 3. Óscar y Flora_____ 4. Adriana_____ 5. las turistas_____ 6. el chico_____ 7. los conductores_____ 8. el señor y la señora Ruiz_____ ¡INTÉNTALO! Provide the correct present forms of ser.