Presentation on theme: "Spanish is like a song or a poem…"— Presentation transcript:
1 Spanish is like a song or a poem… that should sound like music to your ears.
2 Spanish nouns ANTE TODO A noun is a word used to identify people, animals, places, things, or ideas.Unlike English, all Spanish nouns, even those that refer to nonliving things, have gender. They are considered either masculine or feminine.The gender of nonliving things has nothing at all to do with what they the thing is. The word “vestido” means “dress,” but it is masculine. The word “corbata” means “tie,” but it is feminine.As in English, nouns in Spanish also have number, meaning that they are either singular or plural.
3 Spanish nounsNouns that refer to males, like el hombre, are generally masculine.Nouns that refer to females, like la mujer, are generally feminine.Many nouns that refer to male beings end in–o or –or.Their corresponding feminine forms end in–a and –ora, respectively.
4 Spanish nounsThe masculine and feminine forms of nouns that end in ista, like turista, are the same, so gender is indicated by the article el (masculine) or la (feminine).Some other nouns have identical masculine and feminine forms, so gender is indicated by the article el (masculine) or la (feminine).el joventhe youth; the young manel estudiantethe (male) studentla joventhe youth; the young womanla estudiantethe (female) student
5 Nouns that refer to living things Masculine Nounsel hombre the manending in –o el chico the boyel pasajero the (male) passengerending in –or el conductor the (male) driverel profesor the (male) professorending in –ista el turista the (male) tourist
6 Nouns that refer to living things Feminine Nounsla mujer the womanending in –a la chica the girlla pasajera the (female) passengerending in –ora la conductora the (female) driverla profesora the (female) professorending in –ista la turista the (female) tourist
7 Spanish nounsCertain singular noun endings are strongly associated with a specific gender, so you can use them to determine if a noun is masculine or feminine.Because the gender of nouns that refer to nonliving things cannot be determined by foolproof rules, you should memorize the gender of each noun you learn.
8 Spanish nounsIt is helpful to memorize each noun with its corresponding article, el for masculine and la for feminine.Another reason to memorize the gender of every noun is that there are common exceptions to the rules of gender.Masculine noun ending in –ael mapa (map)Feminine noun ending in –ola mano (hand)
9 Nouns that refer to nonliving things Masculine Singular Nounsending in –o el cuaderno the notebookel diario the diaryel diccionario the dictionaryel número the numberending in –ma el problema the problemel programa the programending in –s el autobús the busel país the country
10 Feminine Singular Nouns Nouns that refer to nonliving thingsFeminine Singular Nounsending in –a la cosa the thingla escuela the schoolla grabadora the tape recorderla palabra the wordending in –ción la lección the lessonla conversación the conversationending in –dad la nacionalidad the nationalityla comunidad the community
11 Plural of nouns el chico los chicos el diario los diarios Nouns that end in a vowel form the plural by adding –s.el chico los chicosel diario los diariosla palabra las palabrasel problema los problemasNouns that end in a consonant add –es.el país los paísesel profesor los profesoresNouns that end in –z change the –z to –c, then add –es.el lápiz los lápices
12 Plural of nouns ¡ATENCIÓN! 1 pasajero + 2 pasajeras = 3 pasajeros You use the masculine plural form of the noun to refer to a group that includes both males and females.1 pasajero + 2 pasajeras = 3 pasajeros2 chicos + 2 chicas = 4 chicos¡ATENCIÓN!When a singular noun has an accent mark on the last syllable, the accent is dropped from the plural form.la lección las leccionesel autobús los autobuses
13 Spanish articles ANTE TODO As you know, English often uses definite articles (the) and indefinite articles (a, an, some) before nouns.Spanish also has definite and indefinite articles.Unlike English, Spanish articles vary in form because they agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify.
14 Definite articlesSpanish has four forms that are equivalent to the English definite article the. You use definite articles to refer to specific nouns.MasculineSingularel diccionariothe dictionaryPlurallos diccionariosthe dictionariesFeminineSingularla computadorathe computerPlurallas computadorasthe computers
15 Indefinite articlesSpanish has four forms that are equivalent to the English indefinite article, which according to context may mean a, an, or some. You use indefinite articles to refer to unspecified persons or things.MasculineSingularun pasajeroa (one) passengerPluralunos pasajerossome passengersFeminineSingularuna fotografíaa (one) photographPluralunas fotografíassome photographs
16 Abbreviations la/una fotografía la/una foto When a word is abbreviated, the gender of the word doesn’t change, even though the ending changes. Therefore, the definite and indefinite articles do not change with abbreviations.FeminineSingularla/una fotografía la/una fotothe/ a photographPlurallas/unas fotografías las/unas fotosthe/some photographs
17 ¿el, la, los o las? _____ chico _____ chica _____ maleta ¡INTÉNTALO! Provide a definite article for each noun in the first column and an indefinite article for each noun in the second column.¿el, la, los o las?_____ chico_____ chica_____ maleta_____ cuadernos_____ profesor_____ mujeres¿un, una, unos o unas?_____ autobús_____ escuela_____ computadora_____ hombre_____ señoras_____profesores