The War’s End When the U.S. entered the war, the Allied Powers had fresh soldiers and supplies German troops – Had no food and other supplies – They were forced to retreat with the coming of the U.S. army
Armistice On October 4, 1918, Germany asked Woodrow Wilson for an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting) – The armistice began on November 11, 1918 11 th day, 11 th month, 11 th hour What is Armistice day called in the U.S. today?
Wilson’s 14 Points January 1919 – world leaders gather in Paris, France for a peace conference President Wilson presents a peace plan to end all future wars known as the “Fourteen Points” Creation of new nations where people could determine how they wanted to be ruled = self- determination Ending of secret treaties and peaceful settlement of disputes over colonies
League of Nations Wilson’s final point called for the creation of an international organization where countries would work together to keep peace. This organization was known as the League of Nations
Paris Peace Conference The Allies disagreed on how to “punish” the Central Powers – Wilson did not want to punish them – other Allies sought revenge (why?)
Countries and Leaders at the Peace Conference USA – Woodrow Wilson Great Britain – David Lloyd George France – George Clemenceau
Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919 Forced Germany to accept guilt for war and pay reparations (pay for damages) Limited Germany’s military – Forbidden to have aircraft and submarines Germany lost colonies and territories League of Nations was created
American Opposition Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles to the U.S. Senate in July 1919 for ratification – The Senate had to approve the treaty before the U.S could officially accept it Many Americans did not trust the idea of a League of Nations They thought that an organization would tie America to international work (protecting other nations) forever
American Opposition The U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 – The U.S. did NOT join the League of Nations – In 1921 the U.S. signed a separate treaty with each of the Central Powers, officially ending the war.