July 18, 1918 Second Battle of the Marne Germany’s last great offensive strike Germany was weakened and the allies had help from the Americans (*which was crucial)
Nov. 9 th 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm steps down German soldiers mutinied b/c they were tired of losing and their leader Wilhelm II fled the country Germany becomes a democratic republic, known as the “Weimar Republic”.
Nov. 11, 1918 – Armistice Day o Germany signs an armistice ending the war o An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. (doesn’t end the war, just stops the fighting) o Germany agrees to surrender if Wilson uses his 14 points to negotiate a peace treaty
USA: Woodrow Wilson’s Goals Fourteen Points – outlined measures to keep the peace after WWI and prevent war 1.No secret alliances 2.Freedom of the Seas 3.Free trade 7-13. Ensure self-determination for all new nations 14.Creation of the League of Nations Wilson became the spokesperson for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation
December 1918 German Communist Party tries to take over Germany but fails.
June 1919 Paris Peace Conference Led by the “Big 4” Woodrow Wilson from America David Lloyd George from Great Britain Georges Clemenceau from France Vittorio Orlando from Italy
Great BritainFranceUnited StatesItaly David Lloyd GeorgeGeorges ClemenceauWoodrow WilsonVittorio Orlando make Germany pay reparations for war damages Wanted: revenge on Germany (WWI fought mostly in France) Security from any future aggression by Germany with buffer zone between them Pay reparations for war damages The spokesperson for Democracy and a new world of Peace: -Fourteen points to prevent war -League of Nations Only really there because they had joined the allies and helped win the war
Who was not invited? » Germany » Russia Why not?
Treaty of Versailles The “Big 4” signed individual treaties with each of the Central Powers. The most important one was the treaty with Germany, called the Treaty of Versailles
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Signed on June 28 th, 1919 Germany forced to pay the Allies $33 Billion in reparations over 30 years Article 231 – aka War Guilt Clause – Germany is forced to take all responsibility for the war Germany returns Alsace-Loraine to France and the French border is extended to the Rhine River Germany surrenders all of its overseas colonies in Africa and the Pacific
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Germany is – Forbidden to buy or build submarines or have an airforce – Prohibited from importing or making weapons – Limited in the size of its army (100,000 men max.) (this limiting of weapons/soldiers is know as “military disarmament”) Creation of a League of Nations to settle all international disputes
Results of the Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles Germany, Italy, Russia and Japan feel cheated by the terms of peace US turns away from international affairs, refuses to join the League of Nations (even though it was their presidents’ idea) Dissatisfaction with the Treaty and worldwide depression in the 1930s sets the stage for the 2 nd World War.