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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 17. Chapter 9 MOTIVATING AND LEADING EMPLOYEES."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 17


3 Chapter Outcome Describe the nature and importance of psychological contracts in the workplace Importance of job satisfaction and employee morale Important theories of motivation Strategies to improve job satisfaction and employee motivation Managerial style of leadership

4 Psychological Contract Set of expectation held by employees concerning what they will contribute and what the organization will provide Employee’s Contributions Organization’s Inducements Result – satisfaction and motivation

5 Psychological Contract Human Relations- Interaction Of Employees With Company And Each Other –Job Satisfaction Degree of enjoyment derived from work –Morale Overall attitude towards work –Turnover Annual % of workforce that leaves and must be replaced – Organizational Success –Satisfied VS dissatisfied worker

6 Trends In Satisfaction & Morale Massive Layoffs/Cutbacks Improving Economy Could Mean Reduced Morale Reinstate Benefits

7 High Priorities For Today’s Workforce Family Orientation Sense Of Community Quality Of Life Issues Volunteerism Autonomy Flexibility & Nonconformity

8 Workplace Motivation Motivation- Forces Affecting People’s Behavior Classical Theory/Scientific Management Behavior Theory Contemporary Motivational Theories

9 Classical Theory Frederick Taylor (1911) More Money = Greater Motivation Efficient Company = Higher Profits & Pay Time-And-Motion Study

10 Behavior Theory Hawthorne Studies (1925) Physical Environment Changes Affect Worker Output Increased Pay did not increase productivity Hawthorne Effect – productivity rose in response to management action that workers interpreted as special attention

11 Theories X & Y (1960) Belief about how best to use the human resource employed by the firm, Theory Y managers are more likely to have satisfied workforce

12 Hierarchy Of Needs (1954) Abrahim Maslow

13 Two-Factor Theory(1959) – Fredrick Herzberg Job Satisfaction Depends On Two Factors

14 Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom (1964) People Work Towards Rewards

15 Equity Theory People evaluate their treatment by employers relative to the treatment of others

16 Strategies for Enhancing Job Satisfaction and Motivation

17 Reinforcement/Behavior Modification Theory B.F. Skinner (1957) –Behavior can be encouraged or discouraged by means of reward and punishment Reinforcement –Piecework –Performance = Rewards Punishment = Negative Reinforcement –Present people with unpleasant consequences

18 Management By Objectives Peter Drucker (1954) Collaborative Goal Setting

19 Recent Management Styles Participative Management Or Employee Empowerment –Employees Receive Greater Responsibility –Employees Feel More Committed To Organization Team Management- Employees Given Decision-Making Responsibility –Some Employees Frustrated By Increased Responsibility

20 Job Enrichment Adding one more motivating factor to the job

21 Job Enlargement & Job Rotation Job A Job B Job C

22 Job Redesign Acknowledges that different people want different things Restructures work to have a fit between worker and work Job redesign is implemented in one or three ways Combining task or job enlargement Forming natural workgroups Establishing client relationships More control and feedback

23 Modified Work Schedules Work-Share Flextime Telecommuting/Virtual Office Advantages –Employee Freedom/Control Of Life –Improves Individual Productivity Disadvantages –Complex Coordination –Difficult To Keep Accurate Records

24 Flextime Schedule

25 Questions For Telecommuters Can I Manage Deadlines? Can I Be Without The Social Context Of The Office? –Networking –Advancement What Will Be The Impact On My Family?

26 Managerial Styles & Leadership Managerial Styles- Patterns Of Management Behavior In Dealing With Employees Leadership- Motivating Others To Work

27 Autocratic Style Issue Orders Expect Them To Be Followed Rapid Decision-Making

28 Democratic Style Ask For Input From Subordinates Retains Final Authority

29 Free-Rein Style Manager Is Advisor To Subordinates Subordinates Make Decisions Fosters Creativity

30 Contingency Style No Specific Style Used All The Time Situation Dictates Manager’s Leadership Style Different Cultures Have Varying Expectations Of Leaders

31 21 st Century Leadership/Management Motivation –Money No Longer Prime –Different Desires At Work –Varying Lifestyles Reflect Varying Goals Of Employee Leadership –Flatter Organizations = Less Autocratic –Diversity Of Workplace = Diversity Of Leaders –Network Mentalitys

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