Presentation on theme: "Schermerhorn - Chapter 121 Motivation and Human Needs 4 Hierarchy of Needs Theory –Developed by Abraham Maslow –Lower order and higher order needs affect."— Presentation transcript:
Schermerhorn - Chapter 121 Motivation and Human Needs 4 Hierarchy of Needs Theory –Developed by Abraham Maslow –Lower order and higher order needs affect behavior deficit principle –satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior progression principle –need at one level does not become activated until the next lower need is satisfied
Schermerhorn - Chapter 122 Motivation and Human Needs 4 Two-Factor Theory –Developed by Frederick Herzberg satisfier factors (job content) –things related to the nature of the job itself –source of job satisfaction and motivation hygiene factors (job context) –things related more to the work setting –source of job dissatisfaction
Schermerhorn - Chapter 123 Motivation and Human Needs 4 Acquired Needs Theory –Developed by David McClelland Need for Achievement (nAch) –desire to do something better, solve problems, master complex tasks Need for Power (nPower) –desire to control, influence or be responsible for others Need for Affiliation (nAff) –desire to establish and maintain friendly relations with others
Schermerhorn - Chapter 124 Content Theories of Motivation 4 Acquired Needs Theory –People develop these needs over time –Each need is associated with a distinct set of work preferences managers are encouraged to recognize the strength of each need in themselves and others create work environments responsive to the strength of each need
Schermerhorn - Chapter 125 Process Theories of Motivation 4 Equity Theory –Developed by J. Stacy Adams Perceived inequity is a motivating state –People who feel underpaid experience a sense of anger. –People who feel overpaid experience a sense of guilt. People respond to perceived inequity by changing: –work inputs –rewards received –comparison points –situation
Schermerhorn - Chapter 126 Process Theories of Motivation 4 Expectancy Theory (con’t) –Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I) and valence (V) are related to another in a multiplicative fashion M = E x I x V –If either E, I or V is low, motivation will be low!
Schermerhorn - Chapter 127 Process Theories of Motivation 4 Goal-Setting Theory –Developed by Edwin Locke –Task goals are clear and desirable performance targets. –Motivational effects of task goals: Provide direction to people in their work. Clarify performance expectations. Establish a frame of reference for feedback. Provide a foundation for behavioral self- management. (MBO, Management by Objectives is an outgrowth of this theory)
Schermerhorn - Chapter 128 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation 4 Operant conditioning strategies: –Positive reinforcement Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of a pleasant consequence. (Give a that-a-boy (girl) you start game –Negative reinforcement Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an unpleasant consequence. (do not have to run laps if you did well in practice)
Schermerhorn - Chapter 129 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation 4 Operant conditioning strategies: –Punishment Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of an unpleasant consequence. (moved to second team) –Extinction Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of a pleasant consequence. (get out of practice early)
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1210 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation 4 Guidelines for using positive reinforcement –Clearly identify desired work behaviors. –Maintain a diverse inventory of rewards. –Inform everyone about what must be done to get rewards. –Recognize individual differences when allocating rewards. –Follow the laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1211 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation 4 Guidelines for using punishment: –Tell the person what is being done wrong. –Tell the person what is being done right. –Match the punishment to the behavior. –Administer punishment in private. –Follow the laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1212 Motivation and Job Design 4 Job –collection of tasks performed in support of organizational objectives 4 Job Design –process of creating or defining jobs by assigning specific work tasks to individuals and groups Job Performance Also called performance evaluation quantity and quality of tasks accomplished by an individual or group at work value-added criterion
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1213 Motivation and Job Design 4 We want workers to be satisfied 4 Job Satisfaction –degree to which an individual feels positively or negatively about various aspects of the job less turnover and absenteeism among satisfied workers
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1214 Motivation and Job Design 4 Job Simplification –standardizing work procedures –employing people in well-defined tasks –can result in boredom –extreme form is automation
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1215 Motivation and Job Design 4 Job Rotation and Job Enlargement –Job Rotation increases task variety by shifting workers between different jobs ( regularly and periodically) Job Enlargement increases task variety by combining two or more tasks previously assigned to other workers –Horizontal loading – Vertical loading
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1216 Motivation and Job Design 4 Job Enrichment –building more opportunities for satisfaction into a job job depth (vertical loading)
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1217 Motivation and Job Design 4 Job Characteristics Model –diagnostic approach to job enrichment –five core job characteristics –job high in core characteristics is enriched
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1218 Motivation and Job Design 4 Core Characteristics of Job Characteristics Model –skill variety –task identity –task significance –autonomy –feedback
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1219 Motivation and Job Design 4 Improving Core Characteristics –form natural work units –combine tasks –establish client relationships –open feedback channels –practice vertical loading
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1220 Alternative Work Arrangements 4 Compressed Workweek –schedule that allows a full-time job to be completed in less than standard 5 days of 8-hour shifts 4 4-40 (also known as 4-10) –employees work 4 days, 10 hours each day
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1221 Alternative Work Arrangements 4 Flexible Working Hours –any work schedule which gives employees some choice in daily work hours core time - all employees must be at work allows employees to schedule around personal and family responsibilities daily, weekly or monthly arrangements
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1222 Alternative Work Arrangements 4 Job Sharing –One full-time job is split between two or more persons. –Organizations benefit by employing talented people who would otherwise be unable to work.
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1223 Alternative Work Arrangements 4 Telecommuting –work arrangement that allows a portion of scheduled work hours to be completed outside of the office –Advantages reduced commuting increase productivity fewer work distractions flexible hours
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1224 Alternative Work Arrangements 4 Telecommuting –Disadvantages loss of visibility for promotion working too much difficulty separating work and personal life
Schermerhorn - Chapter 1225 Independent Contracting and Part-Time Work (Govt. looking into) 4 Independent Contracting –specific tasks or projects are assigned to outsiders 4 Contingency Workers (permatemps) –part-timers who supplement full-time workforce, often on a long term basis –increase staffing flexibility –often paid less, receive fewer benefits