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© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-1 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications Chapter 5 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-2 Management by Objectives (MBO) Emphasizes converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for individual units and members that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-3 Cascading of Objectives Overall organizational objectives Divisional objectives Departmental objectives Individual objectives
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-4 Management by Objectives Four ingredients common to MBO programs: 1. Goal specificity 2. Participative decision making 3. Explicit time period 4. Performance feedback
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-5 Management by Objectives Organizational objectives translated to specific objectives for each level (division, department, individual) Lower-level managers participate in setting their own goals
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-6 Management by Objectives Results in hierarchy of objectives that links one level to the next If all individuals achieve goals, organizational objectives will be attained.
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-7 Behavior Modification (OB Mod) The application of reinforcement theory to individuals in the work setting
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-8 Identify performance related behavioral events Measure: Baseline the frequency of response Apply appropriate strategy Identify existing behavioral contingencies through functional analysis Develop intervention strategy Measure: Chart the frequency of response after intervention Maintain desirable behavior Evaluate for performance improvement Problem solved? Yes No Steps in OB MOD
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-9 Employee Recognition Programs Programs where specific types of behavior are encouraged and the procedures for attaining recognition are clearly identified
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-10 Employee Recognition Programs Rewarding behavior with recognition immediately leads to its repetition. To maximize motivation potential, publicly communicate who and why is being recognized.
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-11 Employee Recognition Programs Critics argue that employee recognition programs are highly susceptible to political manipulation by management
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-12 Employee involvement Participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees Designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-13 Employee involvement Involving workers in decisions that will affect them and increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-14 Employee Involvement Will usually make employees: more motivated more committed to the organization more productive more satisfied with their jobs
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-15 Participative Management Employees actually share a significant degree of decision- making power with their immediate superiors Not appropriate for every organization or every work unit
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-16 Must be adequate time to participate Issues in which employees get involved must be relevant to them Employees must have the ability (intelligence, technical knowledge, communication skills) to participate Organization’s culture must support employee involvement Participative Management
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-17 Representative Participation Workers are represented by a small group of employees who actually participate Goal is to redistribute power within an organization Overall influence on working employees seems to be minimal
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-18 Works councils Board representatives Representative Participation
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-19 Employee Stock Ownership Plans Company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices, as part of their benefits Have the potential to increase employee job satisfaction and work motivation
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-20 Job Redesign and Scheduling Programs Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-21 Job Rotation - periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another R educes boredom and increases motivation
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-22 Job enlargement - Increasing the number and variety of tasks that an individual performed Job enrichment - increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her work
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-23 How does management enrich an employee’s job? 1)Combine tasks 2)Form natural work units 3)Establish client relationships 4)Expand jobs vertically 5)Open feedback channels
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-24 Flextime Benefits include: 1)reduced absenteeism 2)increased productivity 3)reduced overtime expenses 4)lessening in hostility toward management 5)reduced traffic congestion around work sites, 6)elimination of tardiness 7)increased autonomy and responsibility for employees that may increase employee job satisfaction
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-25 Job Sharing Allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-26 Telecommuting Employees who do their work at home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to their office
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-27 Telecommuting Benefits include: 1)larger labor pool from which to select 2)higher productivity 3)less turnover 4)improved morale 5)reduced office-space costs
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-28 Telecommuting The major downside for management is less direct supervision of employees May make it more difficult for management to coordinate teamwork
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-29 Variable-Pay Programs A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual or organizational measure of performance or both
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-30 Piece-rate plans Bonuses Profit sharing Gainsharing
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-31 Skill-Based Pay Plans Sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 5-32 Motivating a Diverse Workforce Be flexible Be ready to design work schedules, compensation plans, benefits, physical work settings to reflect your employees’ varied needs
Topics we will cover Chapter 8 The job characteristics model
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