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Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam

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1 Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam
Chapter 8

2 Essential Question- Section 1
Why was Constantinople a great city?

3 Constantinople Constantinople Made by Constantine in 330
Built on site of Greek seaport known as Byzantium Intersection of major trade routes between Asia and Europe Constantine called it New Rome Remember has Rome split in west and then east? Eastern Roman Empire now= Byzantine Empire

4 Emperor- church and state
Rulers power Absolute= with complete, unrestrained authority Religion closely linked with politics One ruler tried to reconquer all of western Roman Empire- Justinian

5 Justinian Had official court historian- Procopius
Said Justinian a conscientious ruler Justinian tried to reconquer lands in the west Ordered Greek and Latin scholars to compile and simplify the laws Was successful in reconquering – even took the city of Rome and parts of Africa Rome went back and forth between rulers When Byzantines finally controlled power Rome, the city was in ruins Spread his empire through Spain The destruction of Rome was caused by Justinian

6 Justinian’s Code of Laws
Body of Civil Law (Corpus Juris Civilis)- Code of Justinian Codex Justinian- 5,000 laws from Roman Empire that were still relevant Digest- quotes and summarized the opinions of Rome’s greatest legal writers Institutes- textbook for law students on how to use new code Novellae- new laws Basis for Byzantine Empire for 900 years

7 Church Split In Constantinople, icons used (objects depicting Jesus, Mary, etc.) People in Constantinople did not like this- thought icon really an idol (these people are called iconoclasts) Tension between people in Rome and people in Constantinople Eventually, split the church: Christianity in Rome= Roman Catholic Church Christianity in Constantinople= Eastern Orthodox Church

8 Fight for Survival Byzantine Empire always fighting to stay alive
Just like Rome, constantly trying to stop invaders Eventually Arabs, inspired by Prophet Muhammad, came into Byzantine Empire through the Arabian desert and threatened empire’s survival

9 Quick Write What factors made Constantinople a great city? (consider geographic, historic, and cultural influences)

10 Section 3- The Empires Influences Slavs and Turks
Essential Question- Why were the Turks successful in taking over the Byzantine Empire and bringing it to an end?

11 Byzantine Culture Influences the Slavic Peoples
Byzantine Empire lost land to Muslims, but Constantinople still strong Arabs attacking Constantinople from the South, Slavs attacking from the North Slavs- nomads who migrated from eastern Europe into Asia

12 Conversion of Slavs The Russian Kingdom
Slavs persuaded to become Christian (unlike the Arahs) The Russian Kingdom Slavs in north called Russians Princess Olga, ruled Kiev from ,was the first Russian ruler to be Christian Hagia Sophia- built by Constantine, Cathedral Russians looked to Constantinople rather than Rome as the religious leader- cutting ties from Western Europe

13 The Turks Struck from the East
Islamic Empire Spain already broke from Islamic Empire by 756 Lost Egypt in 868- biggest loss Sultan held all political power or Islamic Empire- not religious Seljuk Turks Baghdad fell to the Turks Seljuk Turks= first group of migrating Turks, Sunni’s Still fought with other Muslims Once Baghdad fell, Turks replaced Arabs as the ruling class 1071- Seljuk Turks invaded Byzantine Empire and took over the eastern Byzantine Empire

14 The Ottomans posed a new Threat
New group of Turks- the Ottomans Ottomans saw themselves as Ghazis- fierce Islamic warriors dedicated to fighting a holy war against non-believers Ottomans took power from Seljuk Turks Ottomans invaded the Byzantine Empire and by 1350, they controlled most of western Asia Minor Only Constantinople remained unconquered

15 The Fall of Constantinople
If the city stayed under Byzantine rule, the Ottomans could not gain more power Muhammad II- Ottoman Sultan- said “I want only one thing. Give me Constantinople!” 1451 April 6, Siege for Constantinople Muhammad gained control of the Harbor May 29- Ottoman Turks took over Constantinople Muhammad changed the name to Istanbul Hagia Sophia transformed into a Mosque

16 Quick Write Why were the Turks successful in taking over the Byzantine Empire and bringing it to an end?

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