Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam"— Presentation transcript:
1 Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam Chapter 8
2 Essential Question- Section 1 Why was Constantinople a great city?
3 Constantinople Constantinople Made by Constantine in 330 Built on site of Greek seaport known as ByzantiumIntersection of major trade routes between Asia and EuropeConstantine called it New RomeRemember has Rome split in west and then east? Eastern Roman Empire now= Byzantine Empire
4 Emperor- church and state Rulers power Absolute= with complete, unrestrained authorityReligion closely linked with politicsOne ruler tried to reconquer all of western Roman Empire- Justinian
5 Justinian Had official court historian- Procopius Said Justinian a conscientious rulerJustinian tried to reconquer lands in the westOrdered Greek and Latin scholars to compile and simplify the lawsWas successful in reconquering – even took the city of Rome and parts of AfricaRome went back and forth between rulersWhen Byzantines finally controlled power Rome, the city was in ruinsSpread his empire through SpainThe destruction of Rome was caused by Justinian
6 Justinian’s Code of Laws Body of Civil Law (Corpus Juris Civilis)- Code of JustinianCodex Justinian- 5,000 laws from Roman Empire that were still relevantDigest- quotes and summarized the opinions of Rome’s greatest legal writersInstitutes- textbook for law students on how to use new codeNovellae- new lawsBasis for Byzantine Empire for 900 years
7 Church SplitIn Constantinople, icons used (objects depicting Jesus, Mary, etc.)People in Constantinople did not like this- thought icon really an idol (these people are called iconoclasts)Tension between people in Rome and people in ConstantinopleEventually, split the church:Christianity in Rome= Roman Catholic ChurchChristianity in Constantinople= Eastern Orthodox Church
8 Fight for Survival Byzantine Empire always fighting to stay alive Just like Rome, constantly trying to stop invadersEventually Arabs, inspired by Prophet Muhammad, came into Byzantine Empire through the Arabian desert and threatened empire’s survival
9 Quick WriteWhat factors made Constantinople a great city? (consider geographic, historic, and cultural influences)
10 Section 3- The Empires Influences Slavs and Turks Essential Question- Why were the Turks successful in taking over the Byzantine Empire and bringing it to an end?
11 Byzantine Culture Influences the Slavic Peoples Byzantine Empire lost land to Muslims, but Constantinople still strongArabs attacking Constantinople from the South, Slavs attacking from the NorthSlavs- nomads who migrated from eastern Europe into Asia
12 Conversion of Slavs The Russian Kingdom Slavs persuaded to become Christian (unlike the Arahs)The Russian KingdomSlavs in north called RussiansPrincess Olga, ruled Kiev from ,was the first Russian ruler to be ChristianHagia Sophia- built by Constantine, CathedralRussians looked to Constantinople rather than Rome as the religious leader- cutting ties from Western Europe
13 The Turks Struck from the East Islamic EmpireSpain already broke from Islamic Empire by 756Lost Egypt in 868- biggest lossSultan held all political power or Islamic Empire- not religiousSeljuk TurksBaghdad fell to the TurksSeljuk Turks= first group of migrating Turks, Sunni’sStill fought with other MuslimsOnce Baghdad fell, Turks replaced Arabs as the ruling class1071- Seljuk Turks invaded Byzantine Empire and took over the eastern Byzantine Empire
14 The Ottomans posed a new Threat New group of Turks- the OttomansOttomans saw themselves as Ghazis- fierce Islamic warriors dedicated to fighting a holy war against non-believersOttomans took power from Seljuk TurksOttomans invaded the Byzantine Empire and by 1350, they controlled most of western Asia MinorOnly Constantinople remained unconquered
15 The Fall of Constantinople If the city stayed under Byzantine rule, the Ottomans could not gain more powerMuhammad II- Ottoman Sultan- said “I want only one thing. Give me Constantinople!” 1451April 6, Siege for ConstantinopleMuhammad gained control of the HarborMay 29- Ottoman Turks took over ConstantinopleMuhammad changed the name to IstanbulHagia Sophia transformed into a Mosque
16 Quick WriteWhy were the Turks successful in taking over the Byzantine Empire and bringing it to an end?