3 Imperialism Intense competition for colonies In 1875 European Nations control 10%By 1900 European Nations control 90%How?New TechnologyMedical KnowledgeMaxim Gun
4 Imperialism Europeans competed for land over the entire continent: French, Italians and British: North AfricaFrench and Germans: West AfricaBelgians and Germans: Central AfricaPortuguese, Brits and Germans: South AfricaItalians, British, Germans: East AfricaConflict ensued between these nations
6 Berlin Conference 1885Conference called to settle land disputes among European nations in Africa.Called by BismarckWorried about being left out of the ScrambleEvery Corner of Africa divided up.Between European nationsNo African Groups were invitedShows feeling of superiority Europeans felt
8 ExplorationEuropean nations send out explorers to find out what was in Africa.Mungo Park: Scottish, Explored the Niger RiverRene Caillie: from France, 1st to cross the Sahara, searched for TimbuktuRichard Burton and John Hanning Speke: British, looked for the source of the NileDavid Livingstone: British Doctor; missionary; Explored the interior of Africa, treated ill. Named Victoria Falls
34 ImperialismSouth Africa: Bitter power struggle developed among local African groups, Dutch settlers and BritishZulu: African tribe that migrated into South Africa by early 1800’s. Great leader: ShakaBoers: Dutch settlers in South Africa. Settled Capetown in Used locals as slaves.British: won control of Cape Town from Boers in early 1800’s.
35 Great Trek: Boers retreat north to get away from British. 1850’s: Boers set up two independent republics on Zulu land: Orange Free State and the Transvaal.The two fought for years.British helped Boers to defeat the Zulu.
37 Imperialism The Mfecane: Mfecane "the Crushing“. Events following the rise to power of Shaka who created a militaristic kingdom. He conquered some tribes and forced other tribes to leave the area, opening the way for European settlement.Very bloody.
38 Imperialism Discovery of Diamonds and Gold in South Africa Boer War, 1900: between British and Boers for control of Boer territory and gold/diamonds.British won.1908: British create Union of South Africa out of various colonies.Granted self governmentOnly whites could vote. Majority of white population: Boers. They controlled government.Institute Apartheid: separation of races.
39 Imperialism Cecil Rhodes: British miner looking for gold and diamonds in South AfricaBy 1889 he controlled 90% of the world’s diamond output.
43 Imperialism Summarization: European nations desired land in Africa For its resourcesThe Berlin Conference split up Africa amongst those European nations.Colonialism and mistreatment of the Africans followed.Groups like the Zulu fought against further European expansion.