Presentation on theme: "Imperialism and Africa. Europeans Explore Africa Before 1800 knew very little about Africa Increase during “Age of Imperialism” –Period in which European."— Presentation transcript:
Europeans Explore Africa Before 1800 knew very little about Africa Increase during “Age of Imperialism” –Period in which European nation established colonies and built empires –Britain, Germany, France, Portugal, Spain and Italy Early explorers –Mungo Park – West Africa along Niger River –Richard Burton and John Speke – Source of the Nile River –David Livingstone – Central Africa, a Scottish missionary –Henry M. Stanley Central Africa to find Dr. Livingstone “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Signed over 400 treaties with the natives guns/clothes for land Area became known as the Belgian Congo
Motives Economic – markets and raw material Political – gain power Religious – spread Christianity Exploratory – learn about the unknown Ideological – spread their “superior” culture
Scramble for Colonies Invention help Europeans explore Africa –New medical knowledge –Better guns Berlin Conference –Decided to “carve up” Africa Only 1/10 under European control in 1875 BY 1895 only 1/10 was NOT under European control
African Resistance Resisted with military force –Zulus Slowed down the British into South Africa –Congo (Zaire) Resisted Belgian rule Unable to stop the Europeans –Only Ethiopia was able to remain independence
How did such a small # of Europeans control such a large # of Africans? The Europeans kept the African tribes divided The European nations exploded Africa’s raw materials for their own purpose The Europeans took over great amounts of land The Europeans forced the Africans to pay heavy taxes The Europeans used brutal methods to keep the Africans under control
Effects of European Rule Ruined Traditional African Tribal Gov Exploded economic resources Undermined traditional family life Artificial boarders were created Anti-European legacy Desire for modern technology and same standard of living as Westerners Unstable governments in Africa today
Material Improvements –Transportation Roads Railroads Weakened African tribes family ties due to migration of people –Schools –Telegraphs –Hospitals –Diseases
Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
King Leopold of Belgian set up Congo Free State (early 1900). Sovereign leader of the area he and Henry Morton Stanley laid claim to. Large rubber industry. Leopold ruled it as his personal domain. Reports of human rights abuse (enslavement, multination and death) of the native population. Reports were up to 10 million dead.
An American cartoon depicting Britain taking African territory (circa. 1900
Colonial Rule comes to and End After WWII –Too expensive for the Europeans to run and control –Sense of Nationalism began to develop in African Nations
Problems in African today caused by colonization Building stable governments Civil Wars/Ethnic Rivalries Creating a growing economy Developing agriculture Economic dependence on imports Population explosion Diseases Debts Lack of education – illiteracy