Presentation on theme: "COLD WAR United States vs. Soviet Union. International Effects of WWII Soviet forces occupied Eastern and Central Europe Partition of Germany into East."— Presentation transcript:
International Effects of WWII Soviet forces occupied Eastern and Central Europe Partition of Germany into East and West Germany – Communist: East Germany – Democratic: West Germany Forced creation of Soviet “satellites” – Countries influenced by the Soviet Union (Eastern Europe)
Formation of the United Nations – Replaced the League of Nations – Created to prevent future wars Allied occupation of Japan – American forces were in charge of Japan until 1952 Formation of the state of Israel in 1948
Nuremburg Trials Series of military trials held by the Allied powers 24 major political and military leaders (mostly Nazis) charged for aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
Cold War State of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union without actual fighting that divided the world into two camps - also known as the War of Words
Origins of the Cold War Differences in goals and ideologies between the two superpowers— – The United States was democratic and capitalist. – The Soviet Union was dictatorial and communist.
Germany Germany was partitioned (divided) into East and West Germany Berlin (the capital) was also partitioned.
West Germany West Germany became democratic and resumed self government after a few years of American, British, and French occupation.
East Germany East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.
Cold War characteristics United States and the Soviet Union are in competition with each other Arms race – Competition in Nuclear Warfare Espionage – Spying Iron Curtain – Idea created by Winston Churchill, “…an iron curtain has descended upon this continent…” – Symbolized a physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas.
The United States felt it was in its best interest to rebuild Europe and prevent political and economic instability
Truman’s responses to foreign policy/containment policy Marshall Plan – European Recovery Program – To help Europe rebuild after WWII and keep communism from controlling war torn areas in Europe. – Great Britain and France received most of the aid. Truman Doctrine – The United States would provide military, political and economic assistance to all democratic nations – Containment of Communism
Berlin Blockade The closing of Berlin (located inside the Soviet controlled area) from the west by the Soviet Union. – An attempt to prevent the Allied powers from unifying. – Berlin like Germany was divided into democratic (west) and communist (east) zones Allies responded by sending supplies by air for over a year. – Berlin Airlift – By 1961 East Berlin was sealed off from West Berlin with the construction of the Berlin Wall.