Presentation on theme: "Ethos, Pathos and Logos the art of rhetoric. Rhetoric 0 Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively (Webster's Definition). 0 According."— Presentation transcript:
Rhetoric 0 Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively (Webster's Definition). 0 According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." 0 He described three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
Logos 0 “Logos” is Greek for word 0 refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of the claim 0 the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. 0 The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal. 0 Thinking about logos often leads us to look at logical fallacies which allow us to see the fallacies in what a writer sees as logical appeal.
The importance of logos in writing…. 0 Make the argument logical 0 Provides a premise- or a main idea- an argument should contain other elements, but the same premise should be scattered throughout the entire essay, editorial, speech…. 0 The logic of an argument allows the writer to then use pathos (emotion) and ethos (credibility) in their argument
Incorporating logos into your writing… 0 inductive logic: giving your readers a bunch of similar examples and then drawing from them a general proposition. 0 This logic is pretty simple and linear…you make a statement, provide examples and then draw a conclusion. 0 deductive enthymeme: giving your readers a few general propositions and then drawing from them a specific truth. -This argument resembles: such-'n-such is true and such- 'n-such is true and such-'n-such is true and everybody agrees on this other thing, then-poof, stands to reason, a new truth
A bit o’ history on logic… 0 Modern society favors inductive reasoning…it appears to be more black and white…. 0 Often called “scientific method” 0 Inductive reasoning seems more tangible to the reader…and it’s much easier to create an inductive argument as we’re more practiced at it.
Ethos 0 the speaker’s or author’s credibility 0 Persuasion from ethos establishes the speaker's or writer's good character 0 historically, ethos were established by a family’s reputation in the community 0 How has this changed in modern society?
The importance of ethos in writing 0 Given our culture's privileges/rights of free speech and personal equality, however, we have enormous possibilities for the appeal from ethos any writer well versed in his or her subject and well spoken about it can gain credibility. This kind of persuasion comes from what a person says and how a person says it, not from any prejudice (pre-judging) of the author.
Incorporating ethos in writing… it’s easy! 0 What makes you respect someone? -They tell the truth- which is what you should do in your writing -They take into account the opinions of others- which is what you should do in your writing -They put thought and time into their daily activities and lives- as you should when you write. - They care- consider caring about what you write- the words you use, the sentences you form, the style you create. - They stand up for what they believe in- the world is not black and white, nor are opinions.
Pathos 0 Appeal to the reader’s identity and emotions 0 “pathos” is the Greek word for suffering or experience 0 Readers feel what the writer feels
The importance of pathos in writing 0 Writers want the reader to identify with them. 0 Refers to both the emotional and the imaginative impact of the message on an audience 0 the power with which the writer's message moves the audience to decision or action When we care about what we write, an emotional response is inevitable.
Incorporating pathos into writing…. 0 Direct appeal rarely works…ie “You should be crying right now this story is so sad.” 0 Stories or other narratives generally elicit pathos 0 Description, description, description!!! 0 Think about today’s politicians…Mitt Romney, President Obama…they’re all about pathos.
Your turn 0 In your group, convince me (lover of all chewy things) that I should eat your bag of candy first. Consider your new argumentation tools.
On a more serious note … 0 The AP debate….read the article posted by the Texas Academy of Math and Science. 0 In two or more paragraphs- defend the validity of AP courses in public high schools.