Presentation on theme: "AP United States Review Session 2. Society of the U.S. (1800-1859) Emerging Groups Emerging Groups Utopians Utopians Mormons Mormons Feminists Feminists."— Presentation transcript:
Society of the U.S. (1800-1859) Emerging Groups Emerging Groups Utopians Utopians Mormons Mormons Feminists Feminists Abolitionists Abolitionists Other Reform Attempts: Other Reform Attempts: Temperance, Public Schools, Prison Reform, Asylum, etc. Temperance, Public Schools, Prison Reform, Asylum, etc.
Presidents: Build Up to the Civil War through the Gilded Age Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) William Harrison (1841) William Harrison (1841) John Tyler (1841-1845) John Tyler (1841-1845) James Polk (1845-1849) James Polk (1845-1849) Zachary Taylor (1849-1850) Zachary Taylor (1849-1850) Millard Fillmore (1850-1853) Millard Fillmore (1850-1853) Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) James Buchanan (1857-1861) James Buchanan (1857-1861) Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) Rutherford B. Hayes (1877- 1881) Rutherford B. Hayes (1877- 1881) James Garfield (1881-1881) James Garfield (1881-1881) Chester Arthur (1881-1885) Chester Arthur (1881-1885) Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) Benjamin Harrison (1889- 1893) Benjamin Harrison (1889- 1893) Grover Cleveland (1893-1897) Grover Cleveland (1893-1897)
A Changing Nation Growth of the Great West Growth of the Great West Drop in the Birthrate Drop in the Birthrate Increase in Immigration Increase in Immigration Growing Problems of Urbanization Growing Problems of Urbanization Changing Roles of Women and Minorities Changing Roles of Women and Minorities
Which of the following supplied the largest number of immigrants to the United States during the first half of the 19c? 1. England 2. Africa 3. Ireland 4. The German states 5. Holland
Early 19 th Century Industrialization Why did we go through industrialization? Why did we go through industrialization? Inventions and Technology Inventions and Technology The Rise of Unions The Rise of Unions Changes in Agriculture Changes in Agriculture Changes in Commerce Changes in Commerce
Factors promoting the beginnings of American industrialization during the early 19 th century included all of the following: 1. High Protective Tariffs 2. Improvements in Transportation 3. Large-Scale Immigration 4. The absence of craft organizations that tied artisans to a single trade.
A Different World-Life in the South Characteristics: Characteristics: Agrarian, Division between the Upper and Lower South, Distinct Social Classes, Urban Slavery Agrarian, Division between the Upper and Lower South, Distinct Social Classes, Urban Slavery Slave Trade Slave Trade Revolts/Resistance Revolts/Resistance Role of Women Role of Women Response to Anti-Slavery Movement Response to Anti-Slavery Movement
Southern Social Class Planter Class Yeomen Farmers House Slaves Poor Whites Field Slaves
The paternalistic view of slavery held that… Slavery was necessary to protect blacks from the mistreatment and abuse they would receive if they were freed.
The most common form of resistance on the part of black American slaves prior to the Civil War was… 1. Violent uprisings in which many persons were killed. 2. Attempts to escape and reach Canada by means of the ‘Underground Railroad.’ 3. Passive resistance, including breaking tools and slightly slowing the pace of work. 4. Arson of plantation buildings and cotton gins. 5. Poisoning of the food consumed by their white masters.
Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion Oregon Country Oregon Country The Texas Question The Texas Question Mexican American War Mexican American War Webster-Ashburton Treaty Webster-Ashburton Treaty Mormon Migration Mormon Migration Gold Rush Gold Rush Manifest Destiny and Growing Sectionalism Manifest Destiny and Growing Sectionalism
In coining the phrase “Manifest Destiny,” journalist John L. O’Sullivan meant that… 1. The struggle for racial equality was the ultimate goal of America’s existence. 2. America was certain to become an independent country sooner or later. 3. It was the destiny of America to overspread the continent. 4. America must eventually become either all slave or all free. 5. America should seek to acquire an overseas empire.
One reason for the Anglo- Texan rebellion against Mexican rule was that? 1. The Mexicans opposed slavery. 2. The Mexican government refused to allow the "Old Three Hundred" to purchase land. 3. The Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian. 4. The Anglo-Texans objected to the Mexican government's execution of Stephen Austin. 5. All of these choices are correct
The Building Crisis Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso The Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 Strengthened Fugitive Slave Law Strengthened Fugitive Slave Law Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas-Nebraska Act Popular Sovereignty Popular Sovereignty Bleeding Kansas Bleeding Kansas Dred Scott v. Sanford Dred Scott v. Sanford
Many Southerners supported the Compromise of 1850 because it? 1. Provided that cotton be substituted for currency as a medium of exchange. 2. Made the number of free states and slave states equal. 3. Legalized slavery in all the newly acquired territories. 4. Provided for the possible creation of five states out of Texas. 5. Provided for the return of fugitive slaves.
In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court ruled that? 1. Dred Scott was not a citizen of the United States. 2. Dred Scott could not legally sue in a federal court. 3. The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. 4. Congress had no power to ban slavery from a territory. 5. All of these choices are correct
The principle of ‘popular sovereignty’ was… 1. First conceived by Senator Stephen A. Douglas. 2. Applied as part of the Missouri Compromise. 3. A central feature of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 4. A policy favored by the Whig Party during the late 1840s and early 1850s. 5. Successful in solving the impasse over the status of slavery in the territories.
The Outbreak of War Election of 1860 Election of 1860 Lincoln’s Inaugural Address Lincoln’s Inaugural Address Fort Sumter Fort Sumter Lincoln’s War Powers Lincoln’s War Powers
Lincoln won the 1860 Presidential Election primarily because… 1. There was overwhelming support throughout the country for the Republican’s anti-slavery platform. 2. He was seen as a moderate by both Northerners and Southerners who could possibly negotiate a compromise between abolitionists and slaveholders. 3. He gathered overwhelming support in the highly populated Northern states while his three opponents divided the anti- Lincoln vote in the North, West, and South. 4. The Know-Nothing Party gave Lincoln its endorsement, and combined with Republican support, the two parties were able to outpoll the politically isolated Democrats. 5. He was able to discredit his chief opponent, Stephen Douglas, as a “closet abolitionist.”
Advantages of Both the North and the South North North Transportation Transportation Natural Resources Natural Resources Industry Industry Capital Capital Population Population Navy Navy South South Pride Generals Potential Cotton Trade Moral cause?
Important Points of the Civil War Homefront: North and South Homefront: North and South Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Address Gettysburg Address Election of 1864 Election of 1864
In issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, one of Lincoln’s goals was to… 1. Gain the active aid of Great Britain and France in restoring the Union. 2. Stir up enthusiasm for the war in such border states as Maryland and Kentucky. 3. Please the radicals in the North by abolishing slavery in the areas of the South already under the control of Union armies. 4. Please Russia, one of the Union’s few overseas friends, where the serfs had been emancipated the previous year. 5. Keep Britain and France from intervening on the side of the Confederacy.
Reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan Lincoln’s Plan Johnson’s Plan Johnson’s Plan Congressional Reconstruction Congressional Reconstruction Finalized Reconstruction Finalized Reconstruction Post-War Life in the South Post-War Life in the South
The sharecropping system in the South following Reconstruction had the effect of… 1. Allowing many former slaves and poor white tenant farmers, who could have never otherwise owned land, to buy their own farms. 2. Moving many former slaves and poor white tenant farmers into the middle class. 3. Pushing tenant farmers and poor independent farmers into deep levels of debt to large landowners and merchants. 4. Helping to limit the power of former plantation owners and Northern business interests. 5. Changing the basic attitudes of whites and blacks who were now forced to work side by side farming the same land.
The Gilded Age Westward Expansion Westward Expansion Politics/Corruption Politics/Corruption Industrialization/Economy/Agriculture Industrialization/Economy/Agriculture Immigration Immigration Social and Cultural Developments Social and Cultural Developments Foreign Relations Foreign Relations
Westward Expansion Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis Homestead Act/Exodusters Homestead Act/Exodusters Transcontinental Railroad Transcontinental Railroad Cattle Industry/Cowboys Cattle Industry/Cowboys Issues with Geography Issues with Geography Issues with Native Americans Issues with Native Americans
Open-range ranching came to an end due to? 1. Overproduction of beef and declining prices. 2. Federal support for irrigated agriculture. 3. The range wars between cattlemen and sheepherders. 4. Increase in cattle production in the Midwest and East. 5. Fencing of the plains with barbed wire.
The Homestead Act provided? 1. That Indians should henceforth own their lands as individuals rather than collectively as tribes. 2. 160 acres of free land within the public domain to any head of household who would settle on it and improve it over a period of five years. 3. Large amounts of federal government land to Great Plains cattle ranchers who would contract to provide beef for the Union army. 4. 40 acres of land to each former slave above the age of 21. 5. That the land of former Confederates should not be confiscated.
Politics and Corruption Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant Rutherford B. Hayes Rutherford B. Hayes James Garfield James Garfield Grover Cleveland Grover ClevelandPoliticalMachine
Industrialization/Economy/ Agriculture Social Darwinism Social Darwinism Labor Unrest/Labor Unions Labor Unrest/Labor Unions Big Business/Captains of Industry Big Business/Captains of Industry Growth of Populism Growth of Populism Government Interventions Government Interventions
The only dominant, broad-based labor union in the United States from 1870-1890 was… 1. National Labor Union 2. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) 3. American Federation of Labor (AF of L) 4. Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) 5. Knights of Labor
The first "big business" in America, at least in terms of finance, labor relations, and management, was? 1. The oil refining industry 2. The telephone industry 3. The movie industry 4. The steel industry 5. The railroad industry
Immigration Who? Why? Where? Who? Why? Where? Ellis Island/Angel Island Ellis Island/Angel Island Nativism Nativism Development of Settlement Houses Development of Settlement Houses
Social and Cultural Developments Urbanization Urbanization Changes for the Better Changes for the Better Social Gospel Movement Social Gospel Movement Progress in Education Progress in Education Emergence of African- American Leaders Emergence of African- American Leaders Literature Literature Newspapers/ Newspapers/Magazines Literary/Artistic Realism Literary/Artistic Realism Popular Amusements Popular Amusements Sports Sports Chicago’s World’s Fair Chicago’s World’s Fair Emergence of Radio and Film Emergence of Radio and Film
Which of the following was among the objectives of Booker T. Washington? 1. To keep up a constant agitation of questions of racial equality. 2. To encourage blacks to be more militant in demanding their rights. 3. To encourage blacks to work hard, acquire property, and prove they were worthy of rights. 4. To urge blacks to accept separate but equal facilities. 5. To form an organization to advance the rights of blacks.
Foreign Relations Movement from Isolationism to Interventionism Movement from Isolationism to Interventionism Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine Significant Involvement in the Western Hemisphere in the late 19 th Century Significant Involvement in the Western Hemisphere in the late 19 th Century
All of the following encouraged American imperialism at the end of the nineteenth century except: 1. European Imperialism 2. Yellow Journalism 3. International Darwinism 4. Naval views of Alfred Thayer Mahan 5. New Immigrants